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Recombinant Proteins are readily available as pharmaceuticals/treatments, additives, and products in modern society.  Choose an available recombinant protein and discuss its origins, use, and efficacy.
Protein and product:
Key reference (choose a peer-reviewed article that leads to the discovery of the test):
Patent date:
What are the protein’s current common Diagnostic value and usage?:
Can the protein be used for other, non-standard uses?:
Please choose an original topic for your post.  Feel free to claim a topic at the beginning of the week.  Please make your first post by Wednesday evening and be sure to respond to all posts in your thread.  Respond to at least one other student by Sunday evening.  Please keep HIPAA guidelines in mind if you want to share work experiences.REVIEW
published: 23 August 2018

doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01919

Frontiers in Immunology | www.frontiersin.org 1 August 2018 | Volume 9 | Article 1919

Edited by:

Rashika El Ridi,

Cairo University, Egypt

Reviewed by:

Anuja Mathew,

University of Rhode Island,

United States

Xia Jin,

Institut Pasteur of Shanghai (CAS),

China

*Correspondence:

Nagesh K. Tripathi

tripathink@gmail.com;

tripathink@drde.drdo.in

Specialty section:

This article was submitted to

Vaccines and Molecular Therapeutics,

a section of the journal

Frontiers in Immunology

Received: 16 June 2018

Accepted: 03 August 2018

Published: 23 August 2018

Citation:

Tripathi NK and Shrivastava A (2018)

Recent Developments in Recombinant

Protein–Based Dengue Vaccines.

Front. Immunol. 9:1919.

doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01919

Recent Developments in
Recombinant Protein–Based Dengue
Vaccines
Nagesh K. Tripathi 1* and Ambuj Shrivastava 2

1 Bioprocess Scale Up Facility, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, India, 2Division of Virology,

Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, India

Recombinant proteins are gaining enormous importance these days due to their

wide application as biopharmaceutical products and proven safety record. Various

recombinant proteins of therapeutic and prophylactic importance have been successfully

produced in microbial and higher expression host systems. Since there is no specific

antiviral therapy available against dengue, the prevention by vaccination is the mainstay

in reducing the disease burden. Therefore, efficacious vaccines are needed to control

the spread of dengue worldwide. Dengue is an emerging viral disease caused by any of

dengue virus 1–4 serotypes that affects the human population around the globe. Dengue

virus is a single stranded RNA virus encoding three structural proteins (capsid protein,

pre-membrane protein, and envelope protein) and seven non-structural proteins (NS1,

NS2a, NS2b, NS3, NS4a, NS4b, NS5). As the only licensed dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia)

is unable to confer balanced protection against all the serotypes, therefore various

approaches for development of dengue vaccines including tetravalent live attenuated,

inactivated, plasmid DNA, virus-vectored, virus-like particles, and recombinant subunit

vaccines are being explored. These candidates are at different stages of vaccine

development and have their own merits and demerits. The promising subunit vaccines

are mainly based on envelope or its domain and non-structural proteins of dengue virus.

These proteins have been produced in different hosts and are being investigated for

development of a successful dengue vaccine. Novel immunogens have been designed

employing various strategies like protein engineering and fusion of antigen with various

immunostimulatory motif to work as self-adjuvant. Moreover, recombinant proteins can

be formulated with novel adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity and thus conferring

better

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