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RESEARCH AND EVALUATION PROJECT #2
LITERATURE REVIEW
Social and Cultural Effects of Women Driving Ban in Saudi Arabia
Aliyah Alghalib – Ghaidaa Moamina
Dr. Eman kurdi
Table of Contents
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2
Research objectives …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3
Thesis Statement …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………3
Research Question ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………3
Research Hypothesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………3
Secondary Research ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4
Methodology………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….6
Sampling methods ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………6
Probability sampling ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..6
Non-probability Sampling ………………………………………………………………………………………………..8
Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………8
References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..10
1
Introduction
In the late 1950s, women were banned from driving as pronounced by Riyadh
(Buchan, 2015, 102). Since then, driving in the country has been dominated by males,
making Saudi Arabia a unique state across the world regarding women rights. During the
male-dominated driving era, driving had been characterized by risky habits and chaotic
traffic, making Saudi Arabia among the most dangerous roadways in the world (Krane, Jim
& Majid, 2018, 1).The year 2018 was a new dawn for women. In June the same year, the
driving legal ban was finally lifted resulting in the ability of millions of women become
drivers a navigate through the kingdoms roads (Krane, Jim & Majid, 2018, 1). Although the
ban was a relief for women who had been denied mobility freedom, it posed enormous
challenges to transport, energy and labor markets as numerous inexperienced drivers flocked
the market. The government of Saudi Arabia officially announced the plan to lift the driving
ban on women in September 2017, a move that was seen as an initiative by the Crown Prince
Mohammed bin Salman. (Doubisi, 2018). However, the few weeks that preceded the June
2018 lifting of the ban were characterized by dramatic events. Several women activists that
were protesting the ban were arrested, raising doubts on the commitment of the government
to reduce its control on women on social matters. It also indicated that a huge section of the
kingdom’s society was not ready for the change. Even though the move was seen as a way to
boost the country’s economy and to enhance the achievement of the country’s ambitious
vision 2030 (Alshuwaikhat, 2017, 408) by tapping the women’s potential and possible
economic contribution, it remain to be seen whether the resolve to restore the mobility of
women will be long-term. This is so because Saudi Arabia is one of the most conservative
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countries in the world. Additionally, the reforms are seen as an initiative to Prince
Salman, and therefore they may be reversed as soon as the prince ceases to exist in active
politics. It is on such background that this study aims at exploring the social-cultural impacts
of denying women’s right to drive and suggest possible remedies to problems created by such
a ban.
Research objectives

To investigate the social-cultural impacts of denying women’s driving rights in Saudi
Arabia.

To establish possible remedies to problems created by denial women to drive
Thesis Statement
Driving is one of women’s rights. Banning women from driving is a violation of their rights
and has far-reaching repercussions in both economic and social aspects in the society.
Research Question

Does banning women from driving amount to a violation of women’s rights?

What are the social impacts when women are banned from driving in Saudi Arabia?

What are the economic impacts of banning women from driving in Saudi Arabia?

What can be done to remedy the challenges caused by the ban on women’s driving?
Research Hypothesis
There is a gross violation of women’s rights when they are banned from driving.
Banning women from driving has far stretching social and economic impacts
3
Secondary Research
In any given society, women must be at the center of development or at least take key
roles for the country to realize its full potential in stability, progress and development in the
long term (Gran, 2019). According to the standards of the United Nations, any discrimination
against women amounts to a violation of fundamental human rights. The organization
expressed commitment to ensure human rights are protected. Achieving Equality between
men and women is one of the major goals of the United Nations organization since its
founding (United Nations, 2014).
Regional organizations such as the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights,
the Charter organization of American States, European Convention on Human Rights and
Fundamental Freedoms have prohibited women discrimination in their respective
jurisdictions. Equally, regional political organizations such as the South Asian Association
for Regional Cooperation and the West African States have also engaged protocols, set
resolutions and declarations to protect women’s rights (UN, 2014).
Equality among women and men was among the eight millennium goals that were set
to be achieved by 2015 in countering most daunting challenges across the world. The
objective of integrating gender equality and human rights for the goals of development of the
whole millennium was seen as crucial strategy in achieving substantial progress.
The commitment to women’s equal rights was also affirmed by Heads of State that
met in Rio to discuss Sustainable Development. A document that resulted from the meeting
stated that equality of gender and women participation was imperative for sustainable
development actions in all aspects. The document also demanded a repeal of all laws that
imposed discrimination against women. (United Nations, 2014). According to the
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organization, women’s rights have been omitted in the conceptualization of human
rights until recently. Consequently, women faced oppression, discrimination, and violence on
a routine basis.
The universality of Human Rights.
The human rights universality and indivisibility has been the emphasis of the
Universal Declaration. Women rights were particularly acknowledged as part of human rights
in the Vienna World conference. An action program that was developed in the conference
stressed the importance of eliminating religious extremism, cultural prejudice, traditional and
customary practices that conflicted to the rights of women.
The Saudi Arabian authorities had supported the ban on women driving arguing that
women did not have to be allowed to drive because the law required all women to have a
male guardian whom they would consult when making major decisions (Beckerle, 2016).
This guardian would also drive them wherever they wanted. According to (United Nations,
2014) programs, laws and policies can result in detrimental effects on women regardless of
how gender-neutral they may appear.
Even as several organization champion for women’s rights, there is lack of enough
statistical data to demonstrating the impacts of denial of equal rights particularly regarding
driving in Saudi Arabia. In this study, we narrow down the economic and social impacts that
results from violation of the fundamental right in the kingdom.
5
Methodology
Data for the study will be collected from two categories of sources. The first category
is the primary source where women who have been affected by the issue will be targeted to
give their views (Greenhalgh, 2005, 1064-1065). To make this possible, questionnaires will
be sent to women in Saudi Arabia who will give consent to participating in the survey. For
respondents that are far aware but willing to participate, their email contacts will be collected
with the help of social media and questionnaires sent to them (Dillman, 2001, 53-71).
Interviews will also be held among the women that will confirm availability at a convenient
location (Fowler, 2013).
Additionally, an online survey will be conducted to capture responses from remote
places in the kingdom where the researchers cannot be physically available due to limitations
of resources (Abutabenjeh & Jaradat, 2018)
The other category of the source of data will be secondary sources. Several secondary
sources such as books, journal articles, diary entries and websites (Moser and Kalton, 2017)
will be identified and reviewed to establish facts, figures, and statistics about the impacts of
denying rights to women and especially driving rights in Saudi Arabia.
Sampling methods
Sampling techniques will involve both probability and non-probability.
Probability sampling: Simple random sampling will be used in the online survey
where members on various social media will be invited to participate in the survey (Baratt &
6
Shantikumar, 2018). The sampling frame will be determined by the total number of
people willing to take part in the study. A sizeable sample from this population will be
selected from the whole population interested in taking part in the research. Each person on
social media will have an equal chance to participate. All the interested potential participants
will be assigned numbers, and then a table of random numbers will be used to select the final
participants.
The advantage of this method is that it will allow the calculation of the error made in
the final analysis. It also minimizes bias during the selection of participants. Additionally, the
method provides a very straightforward approach to sampling. The drawbacks for this
method are that it prevents the study to focus on women who are directly affected by the
driving ban. It also presents challenges when contacting participants for the survey since it
may involve the use of various types of contacts such as email, phone, and post (Baratt &
Shantikumar, 2018).
The survey will also use the stratified sampling method where the population will first
be subdivided into strata according to various characteristics (Pages & Corlay, 2010). These
will include women in Saudi Arabia, men in Saudi Arabia, men and women outside Saudi
Arabia. Women in Saudi Arabia will be subdivided into those who own cars and those that do
not. The population will also be stratified according to the level of education and religion
such as Muslim, Christians, pagans, and Buddhists. Each stratum will be equally represented
in the final population of respondents.
This method will allow the construction of a more realistic mental picture of how
women in Saudi Arabia are affected by the driving ban. It also enhances the
representativeness of the population, therefore, minimizing selection bias. The disadvantages
of this method are that it poses a challenge in selecting the characteristic to be used in
7
stratification and requires a deep understanding of the behaviors of various groups in
the population.
Non-probability Sampling: Convenience Sampling method will be used in consideration of
the nature of the main target of the research who are women in Saudi Arabia. At present,
most women in the country are still afraid or shy to express their views on various matters.
Therefore, sampling will be a factor in the number of people willing to participate in the
interviews(Etikan, Musa and Alkasim, 2016, 1-4). Participants will be selected based on their
willingness and availability for the interviews.
The strength of this method is the simple criteria for selection. However, it is prone to
bias since the respondents might be significantly different from those who decline
participation. As such, it is not a good representative of the population of interest (Baratt &
Shantikumar, 2018, n.p).
Data Analysis
Data validation will be conducted by fraud which will involve checking whether all
the respondents were interviewed, screening to establish whether respondents were selected
according to criteria selected during planning, checking the correctness of procedure of data
collection and checking the completeness of data. The next step will involve data editing
where errors in filling questionnaires will be corrected (Bhatia, 2018). After data editing, data
coding will be done to group the data into a few categories. Qualitative and quantitative
methods will be used in the analysis of data. Quantitative analysis will involve finding mean,
median, mode, range and frequency. It will also include inferential analysis where,
correlation, regression, and variance will be determined to identify the relationship between
variables.
8
Qualitative analysis will include checking the contents of the questionnaires,
analyzing the narrative and discourse analysis to determine the interactions of people (Bhatia,
2018).
9
References
Abutabenjeh, S., & Jaradat, R. (2018). Clarification of research design, research methods,
and research methodology. Teaching Public Administration, 36(3), 237-258. doi:
10.1177/0144739418775787
Alshuwaikhat, H. and Mohammed, I., 2017. Sustainability matters in national development
visions—Evidence from Saudi Arabia’s Vision for 2030. Sustainability, 9(3), p.408.
Baratt, H., & Shantikumar, S. (2018). Methods of sampling from a population. Retrieved
from https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/researchmethods/1a-epidemiology/methods-of-sampling-population
Beckerle, K. (2016). Boxed In | Women and Saudi Arabia’s Male Guardianship System.
Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/07/16/boxed/women-and-saudiarabias-male-guardianship-system
Bhatia, M. (2018). Your Guide to Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis. Retrieved from
https://blog.socialcops.com/academy/resources/qualitative-quantitative-data-analysismethods/#section1a
Buchan, J., 2015. Secular and religious opposition in Saudi Arabia. In State, Society and
Economy in Saudi Arabia (RLE Saudi Arabia) (pp. 108-126). Routledge.
Dillman, D.A. and Bowker, D.K., 2001. The web questionnaire challenge to survey
methodologists. Online social sciences, pp.53-71.
Doubisi, Y. (2018). Saudi Arabia on schedule to lift driving ban on women as planned on
June 24. Retrieved from http://www.arabnews.com/node/1298691/saudi-arabia
10
Etikan, I., Musa, S.A. and Alkassim, R.S., 2016. Comparison of convenience sampling and
purposive sampling. American journal of theoretical and applied statistics, 5(1), pp.14.
Fowler Jr, F.J., 2013. Survey research methods. Sage publications.
Gran, M. (2019). The Global Role of Women – Contributions to Development. Retrieved
from https://globalvolunteers.org/global-role-of-women/
Greenhalgh, T. and Peacock, R., 2005. Effectiveness and efficiency of search methods in
systematic reviews of complex evidence: audit of primary sources. Bmj, 331(7524),
pp.1064-1065.
Krane, J. and Majid, F., 2018. Women Driving in Saudi Arabia: Ban Lifted, What are the
Economic and Health Effects?. Issue Brief, 6.
Moser, C.A. and Kalton, G., 2017. Survey methods in social investigation. Routledge.
Pages, G., & Corlay, S. (2010). Functional Quantization Based Stratified Sampling Methods.
SSRN Electronic Journal. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1578858
United Nations. (2014). Women’s rights are human rights. Retrieved from
https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Events/WHRD/WomenRightsAreHR.pdf
11
Assignment Brief
Module code and title
Assignment title/No.
Grading percentage
Deadline/ Hand-in
ACOL 314 RESEARCH AND EVALUATION PROJECT 2
Research Project – Final
40%
Assignment description:
As a group you are required to conduct a full research for the research topic that you have
selected and proposed in your midterms.
Project learning outcomes:
1. Demonstrate understanding of the different research approaches.
2. Relevance of the research methods for addressing the research objectives.
3. Demonstrate an informed and critical knowledge of the chosen research topic.
4. Academic evaluation skills supported by sound research, referencing and
annotation.
5. How to present researched topic with confidence and clarity.
Tasks to be covered:
Introduction
• Originality, insightfulness, and ambition of research problem/issue.
• Research objective, thesis statement and hypothesis.
Literature Review/ Secondary Research
• Summary/description of recent research related to your research topic.
• Logical, systematic structure of the literature review.
• Clarity of adopted objectives and the extent to which these are closely related to your
research topic.
Methodology




Evidence of research methodology reading.
The stages in the data collection are clearly outlined and rationalized.
A clear outline of the proposed main study sample.
A clear outline of the proposed data analysis tools.
Findings
Discuss the findings of your research. Choose one methodology of the following or do the
mixed methods approach.
1. Qualitative Data:
• Process of data analysis is explained.
• Clarity of transcripts and coding.
• Quality of data analysis and interpretation.
• Critical reflection on how the tentative findings relate to the main research
question.
AND
2. Quantitative Data:
• Process of data analysis is outlined.
• Charts and numerical descriptions.
• Quality of data analysis and interpretation.
• Critical reflection on how the tentative findings relate to the main research question.
Conclusion
• Give a sense of completion.
• Direct the research for future research topics.
• Discuss limitations.
Recommendations
• SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant and Timely)
Presentation
• Visual presentation or Research Poster or Infographic
Additional requirements:








Technicalities.
A clear structure of the proposal with headings.
Accurate use of Harvard referencing system (in—text and reference list).
Accurate use of grammar and spelling.
Accurate cover page format.
Inclusion of page numbers.
Table of Content.
Appendix.
Facilities/ Source of information:



Textbooks
Academic Journals
Databases
Referencing your work:
Harvard referencing is required when using any book, article, journal or online references in
the assignment
Plagiarism and cheating:
Your attention is drawn to the University’s stated position on plagiarism. THE WORK OF
OTHERS THAT IS INCLUDED IN THE ASSIGNMENT MUST BE ATTRIBUTED TO ITS SOURCE (a list
of references and bibliography must be submitted).
Please note that this is intended to be an individual piece of work. Ensure that you read
through your work prior to submission. For some assignments you may be asked to use the
University Plagiarism detection service ‘Turnitin’. Action will be taken where a student is
suspected of having cheated or engaged in any dishonest practice. Students are referred to
the University regulations on plagiarism and other forms of academic irregularity. Students
must not copy or collude with one another or present any information that they themselves
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