Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Urban Tree and Approaches to Landscape Sustainability Analysis | acewriters
+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

1. Paragraphs discussion for EACH final report.( one page of single space.)The 1st file that upload named “Lab response” need 2-3 paragraphs discussion for EACH final report. (There are two reports)2. Reading response. ( one page of single space.)Read the other four files.In the essay, briefly discuss what you learned from each reading, link to your previous experience or knowledge, and pose questions for discussion.The response should combine all the materials as a whole, do not write separate responses for each one.Additional info for the course:This course explores various approaches of landscape planning analysis from site to regional scale. The major contents are:•Understanding and managing landscapes: Urban tree inventory and analysis, watershed planning, forest management, regional open space planning, integrated strategic landscape assessment• Projecting future landscapes: Future l and use change probability analysis, land use implications of Urbanism Next, urban heat vulnerability analysis•Planning and analytical process: Participatory planning, advanced suitability analysis using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
lab_response.pdf

may_9_steiner_livinglandscapes_ch5.pdf

may_14_voelkel_et_al_2018.pdf

may_23_ridgelineareaopenspacevision_skimthrough.pdf

may_23_willametterivervision_skimthrough.pdf

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Submit the final report with 2-3 paragraph
discussion on the results. (1st Final Report)
Lab 2: Urban tree analysis using i-Tree
Lab is the use of i-Tree software developed by the USDA Forest Service for various
urban tree analyses. Among many i-Tree tools available, we will focus on:


i-Tree Eco v6
i-Tree Design
1. iTree Eco v6
We will create an inventory project using the tree inventory data of the
Washburne Park, Eugene. The data is obtained from the City of Eugene.
1) Watch: Importing external inventory data into Eco v6 – 8 min. This video instructions
for setting up an Eco v6 inventory project and importing in external data.
2) Follow the steps shown in the video.
Important notes:
When setting up the project:
1
When you add the Location info, make sure that you select the weather station at the
end.
Project & Strata Area: Enter “5.19” acre in the Area column. The park is approximately 5
acre.
Go to Data and click “Trees” and then “Import”
Select “North WashBurne” excel file from the Lab 2 folder. Make sure that you change
the Worksheet or Range to “Worksheet: ‘features (22)$’” and check “First row contains
column headers”.
Select inventory columns and assign them to the Eco field.
• Species Common Name => Species* and Common Name (Field Type).
• Diameter => DBH1* (in)
• Height => Total Height (ft)
Match your species data to eco value. For “oak.red”, choose “Red Silky Oak”
4) After successfully importing data, go to “Reports” and “Submit Data for Processing”
and fill out your name and email address. It may take a few hours to a day to receive
your report. Once you receive an email, revisit i-Tree Eco and “Track & Retrive Results”
Submit the final report with 2-3 paragraph discussion on the results.
2
Final report of the 1st Question
Metadata Report For:
Location: Eugene, Lane, Oregon, United States of America
Project: North WashBurne Park, Series: 1, Year: 2019
Generated: 5/7/2019
i-Tree Eco v6.0.15
Project created: 5/7/2019
Project location: C:UsersgloriDesktopLA440LabLAB 2Eco v6 GG.ieco
Model HAS been run
Project Type: Complete Inventory
• Project: North WashBurne Park
• Series: 1
• Year: 2019
• 48 trees
Project Info:
• Area: 5.19 acres
• Location: Eugene, Lane, Oregon, United States of America
• Population: 156,185
• Study area is treated as Urban: Yes
• Units: English
Pollution Details:
• Year: 2015
CO O3 NO2 SO2 PM2.5 Location
Yes
Lane, Oregon, United States of America
Yes
Multnomah, Oregon, United States of America
Yes
Yes
Washington, Oregon, United States of America
Yes
Clark, Washington, United States of America
Station ID
0060
0080
0005
0024
Weather Station Details:
• Year: 2015
• USAF: 726930
• WBAN: 24221
• Name: N/A
* see avoided runoff report for annual precipitation total used for analysis
Benefit Prices:
• Electricity $ (USD)/kWh: 0.10 (Eco default value: 0.10 for 2012)
• Fuels $ (USD)/Therm: 1.51 (Eco default value: 1.51 for 2012)
• Carbon $ (USD)/ton: 170.55 (Eco default value: 170.55 for 2020)
• Avoided Runoff $ (USD)/gallon: 0.0089 (Eco default value: 0.0089 for 2004)
Models:
• Forecast v6.0.15
• UFORE-D v1.1.0
Page 1
Metadata Report For:
Location: Eugene, Lane, Oregon, United States of America
Project: North WashBurne Park, Series: 1, Year: 2019
Generated: 5/7/2019
Processing History:
Date/Time
File Name
Retrieved
Tuesday, May 7, 2019 3:06 PM _001_41_039_23850_Eco_v6_GG.ieco.2019_5_7_54393.zip Yes
Tuesday, May 7, 2019 3:02 PM _001_41_039_23850_Eco_v6_GG.ieco.2019_5_7_54118.zip No
Report Availability
Formatted Reports
Written Report
Composition and Structure
Structure Summary
By Species
By Stratum and Species
Population Summary
By Species
By Stratum
By Stratum per Unit Area
Public and Private by Stratum (Unavailable: “Public/private” not checked)
Street Trees by Stratum (Unavailable: “Street tree/non-street tree” not checked)
Species Distribution
By DBH Class (chart)
By DBH Class (vertical table)
By DBH Class (horizontal table)
By DBH Class and Stratum (vertical table)
By DBH Class and Stratum (horizontal table)
Importance Values
By Species
Diversity Indices (Unavailable for this project type or location)
By Stratum (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Species Range
Native Status by Stratum
Condition
By Species
By Stratum and Species
Crown Health
By Species
By Stratum and Species
Leaf Area
By Stratum
By Stratum per Unit Area
Leaf Area and Biomass
Of Shrubs by Stratum (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Of Trees and Shrubs by Stratum
Ground Cover Composition (Unavailable for this project type or location)
By Stratum (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Land Use Composition (Unavailable: “Land Use” not checked)
By Stratum (Unavailable: “Land Use” not checked)
Relative Performance Index
Page 2
Metadata Report For:
Location: Eugene, Lane, Oregon, United States of America
Project: North WashBurne Park, Series: 1, Year: 2019
Generated: 5/7/2019
By Species
Maintenance (Unavailable: “” not checked)
Recommended (Unavailable: “Maintenance recommended” not checked)
Recommended by Species (Unavailable: “Maintenance recommended” not checked)
Recommended by Species and DBH (Unavailable: “Maintenance recommended” not checked)
Task (Unavailable: “Maintenance task” not checked)
Task by Species (Unavailable: “Maintenance task” not checked)
Task by Species and DBH (Unavailable: “Maintenance task” not checked)
Sidewalk Conflicts (Unavailable: “Sidewalk conflict” not checked)
Sidewalk Conflicts by Species (Unavailable: “Sidewalk conflict” not checked)
Sidewalk Conflicts by Species and DBH (Unavailable: “Sidewalk conflict” not checked)
Utility Conflicts (Unavailable: “Utility conflict” not checked)
Utility Conflicts by Species (Unavailable: “Utility conflict” not checked)
Utility Conflicts by Species and DBH (Unavailable: “Utility conflict” not checked)
Other (Unavailable: “Custom Field One name:”, “Custom Field Two name:”, “Custom Field Three name:” not checked)
Field One (Unavailable: “Custom Field One name:” not checked)
Field One by Species (Unavailable: “Custom Field One name:” not checked)
Field One by Species and DBH (Unavailable: “Custom Field One name:” not checked)
Field Two (Unavailable: “Custom Field Two name:” not checked)
Field Two by Species (Unavailable: “Custom Field Two name:” not checked)
Field Two by Species and DBH (Unavailable: “Custom Field Two name:” not checked)
Field Three (Unavailable: “Custom Field Three name:” not checked)
Field Three by Species (Unavailable: “Custom Field Three name:” not checked)
Field Three by Species and DBH (Unavailable: “Custom Field Three name:” not checked)
Benefits and Costs
Benefits Summary of Trees
By Species
By Stratum and Species
Carbon Storage of Trees
By Species
By Stratum
By Stratum per Unit Area
Annual Carbon Sequestration of Trees
By Species
By Stratum
By Stratum per Unit Area
Annual Net Carbon Sequestration of Trees (Unavailable for this project type or location)
By Species (Unavailable for this project type or location)
By Stratum (Unavailable for this project type or location)
By Stratum Per Unit Area (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Energy Effects (Unavailable: “Energy (building interactions)” not checked)
Of Trees (Unavailable: “Energy (building interactions)” not checked)
Hydrology Effects of Trees
By Species
By Stratum
Oxygen Production of Trees
By Stratum
By Stratum per Unit Area
Pollution Removal by Trees and Shrubs
Page 3
Metadata Report For:
Location: Eugene, Lane, Oregon, United States of America
Project: North WashBurne Park, Series: 1, Year: 2019
Generated: 5/7/2019
Monthly Removal
Monthly Removal (chart display)
Pollution Removal by Grass/Herbaceous (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Monthly Removal (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Monthly Removal (chart display) (Unavailable for this project type or location)
VOC Emissions of Trees
By Species
By Stratum
UV Effects of Trees
By Stratum
Avian Habitat Suitability (Unavailable for this project type or location)
By Plot (Unavailable for this project type or location)
By Stratum (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Management Costs
By Expenditure
Net Annual Benefits
Net Annual Benefits for All Trees
Foodscape Benefits of Trees
By Species
Individual Level Results
Composition and Structure
Of Plots
Of Trees
Of Trees By Species
Of Trees By Stratum
Tree Benefits and Costs
Summary
Carbon Storage
Carbon Sequestration
Energy Effects
Hydrology Effects
Pollution Removal
Oxygen Production
VOC Emissions
Miscellaneous
Plot Comments
Tree Comments
Shrub Comments
Air Quality Health Impacts and Values
By Trees
By Shrubs (Unavailable for this project type or location)
By Grass/Herbaceous (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Summary (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Pest Analysis
Susceptibility to Pests
By Stratum
Primary Pest (Unavailable: “Pests (IPED)” not checked)
Impacts by Stratum (Unavailable: “Pests (IPED)” not checked)
Impacted Tree Details (Unavailable: “Pests (IPED)” not checked)
Page 4
Metadata Report For:
Location: Eugene, Lane, Oregon, United States of America
Project: North WashBurne Park, Series: 1, Year: 2019
Generated: 5/7/2019
Signs and Symptoms (Unavailable: “Pests (IPED)” not checked)
Totals by Species (Unavailable: “Pests (IPED)” not checked)
Summaries by Species (Unavailable: “Pests (IPED)” not checked)
Details by Species (Unavailable: “Pests (IPED)” not checked)
Totals by Stratum (Unavailable: “Pests (IPED)” not checked)
Summaries by Stratum (Unavailable: “Pests (IPED)” not checked)
Details by Stratum (Unavailable: “Pests (IPED)” not checked)
Impacted Tree Finder (Unavailable: “Pests (IPED)” not checked)
Pest Review (Unavailable: “Pests (IPED)” not checked)
Of Assessed Trees (Unavailable: “Pests (IPED)” not checked)
Charts
Pollution and Weather
Raw and Source Data
Air Pollutant Concentration
Photosynthetically Active Radiation
Rain
Temperature
UV Index
Air Quality Improvement
By Trees
By Shrubs (Unavailable for this project type or location)
By Grass/Herbaceous (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Air Pollutant Flux (Dry Deposition)
Per Unit Tree Cover
Per Unit Shrub Cover (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Per Unit Grass/Herbaceous Cover (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Transpiration
By Trees
By Shrubs (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Evaporation
By Trees
By Shrubs (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Water Intercepted
By Trees
By Shrubs (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Avoided Runoff
By Trees
By Shrubs (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Potential Evapotranspiration
By Trees
By Shrubs (Unavailable for this project type or location)
UV Index Reduction by Trees
Effects in Tree Shade
Effects Overall
Isoprene
By Trees
By Shrubs (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Monoterpene
By Trees
Page 5
Metadata Report For:
Location: Eugene, Lane, Oregon, United States of America
Project: North WashBurne Park, Series: 1, Year: 2019
Generated: 5/7/2019
By Shrubs (Unavailable for this project type or location)
Forecast Reports
Composition and Structure
Population Summary
Number of Trees
Number of Trees by Stratum
Percent Tree Cover
Percent Tree Cover by Stratum
Tree Cover Area
Tree Cover Area by Stratum
Average DBH Growth
Average DBH Growth by Stratum
Yearly DBH Distributions
Basal Area
Basal Area by Stratum
Leaf Area and Biomass
Leaf Area
Leaf Area by Stratum
Leaf Area Index
Leaf Area Index by Stratum
Leaf Biomass
Leaf Biomass by Stratum
Leaf Biomass per Unit Area
Leaf Biomass by Stratum per Unit Area
Tree Biomass
Tree Biomass by Stratum
Benefits
Carbon Storage and Sequestration
Carbon Storage
Carbon Storage by Stratum
Carbon Sequestration
Carbon Sequestration by Stratum
Pollutant Removal by Trees
Value for All Pollutants
CO
NO2
O3
SO2
PM2.5
Page 6
Submit the final report with 2-3 paragraph
discussion on the results. (2nd Final Report)
2. i-Tree Design
We will estimate the long-term ecosystem services of the residential tree planting.
1) Watch: i-Tree Design intro and walkthrough – 30 min. – This video demonstrates
Design and provides examples of how Design can be used for various community
projects.
2) Read the tree planting recommendation for saving cooling energy:
https://www.arborday.org/trees/climatechange/summerShade.cfm
3) Visit: https://design.itreetools.org/
4) Following the video, go through the rest of the steps.
1. I suggest that you use this address: 2116 Grant St, Eugene, OR 97405 (Built
in1963) . Feel free to use another property (e.g. your own house) if you prefer.
2. Following the guideline, place four trees from the excel file titled
“iTreeDesignSampleTrees” on the sample lot. Enter DBH measurement into the
tree diameter. Make sure that you change the unit to centimeters.
Click “Model tree growth” and adjust your tree location to reduce the crown
overlap. In order to change the tree location, you need to click “Your trees” on the
right-side of the aerial map and delete the tree and re-add a trees.
3. Estimate the benefits for the next 30 years. Click “View Report” on the upper
right corner and print it out and discuss the results briefly (2-3 paragraphs).
Submit the final report with 2-3 paragraph discussion on the results.
3
i-Tree Design v6.0
Final report of the 2nd Question
Tree Benefit Report – 05/07/2019
424 NE Kelly Ave, Gresham,OR 97030 USA
Trees Evaluated: 4
Total Projected Benefits (2019-2049) – Over
the next 30 years, based on forecasted tree
growth, i-Tree Design projects total benefits worth
$1,310:
$760 of stormwater runoff savings by
intercepting 575,567 liters of rainfall
$323 of air quality improvement savings by
absorbing and intercepting pollutants such as
ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and
particulate matter; reducing energy production
needs; and lowering air temperature
$467 of savings by reducing 9,100 kilograms of
atmospheric carbon dioxide through CO 2
sequestration and decreased energy production
needs and emissions
$300 of summer energy savings by direct
shading and air cooling effect through
evapotranspiration
$-539 of winter energy savings by slowing down
winds and reducing home heat loss
Figure 1. Tree benefit forecast for 30 years
Current Year – For 2019, i-Tree Design estimates
annual tree benefits of $32.17:
$19.71 of stormwater runoff savings by
intercepting 14,925 liters of rainfall
$8.45 of air quality improvement savings
$12.52 of carbon dioxide reduction savings
$10.19 of summer energy savings
$-18.70 of winter energy savings
Figure 2. Annual tree benefits for 2019
A cooperative initiative between:
http://www.itreetools.org
1 of 3
i-Tree Design v6.0
Tree Benefit Report – 05/07/2019
424 NE Kelly Ave, Gresham,OR 97030 USA
Trees Evaluated: 4
Future Year – In the year 2049, based on
forecasted tree growth, i-Tree Design
projects annual benefits of $53.18:
$28.56 of stormwater runoff savings by
intercepting 21,623 liters of rainfall
$12.09 of air quality improvement savings
$19.60 of carbon dioxide reduction savings
$9.73 of summer energy savings
$-16.80 of winter energy savings
Figure 3. Annual tree benefits for the year 2049
Total Benefits to Date – Over the life of the
tree(s) so far, i-Tree Design calculates total
benefits worth $310:
$260 of stormwater runoff savings by
intercepting 196,927 liters of rainfall
$116 of air quality improvement savings
$185 of carbon dioxide reduction savings
$146 of summer energy savings
$-397 of winter energy savings
Figure 4. Total benefits to date
A cooperative initiative between:
http://www.itreetools.org
2 of 3
i-Tree Design v6.0
Tree Benefit Report – 05/07/2019
424 NE Kelly Ave, Gresham,OR 97030 USA
Trees Evaluated: 4
Individual Tree Benefits
Benefits
Tree
1. Flowering
dogwood
DBH
Condition
(cm)
Location to
Structure
Current
Year (2019)
Future
Year (2049)
Projected
Total
(2019-2049)
Total to
Date
46 Excellent
Northeast (2 m)
$3.99
$5.13
$139
$99
2. Sugar maple
20.1 Excellent
Northwest (3 m)
$5.70
$13.25
$277
$35
3. Littleleaf linden
59.9 Excellent
Southwest (10
m)
$13.30
$22.61
$560
$149
4. Red maple
40.9 Excellent
West (5 m)
$9.19
$12.20
$334
$27
$32.17
$53.18
$1,310
$310
Total
DBH: “diameter at breast height” is the standard measurement of tree trunk width at 4.5 feet (1.5 meters) above the ground.
A cooperative initiative between:
http://www.itreetools.org
3 of 3
International Journal of
Environmental Research
and Public Health
Article
Assessing Vulnerability to Urban Heat: A Study of
Disproportionate Heat Exposure and Access to Refuge
by Socio-Demographic Status in Portland, Oregon
Jackson Voelkel 1
1
2
*
ID
, Dana Hellman 1 , Ryu Sakuma 2 and Vivek Shandas 1, *
School of Urban Studies and Planning, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97201, USA;
jvoelkel@pdx.edu (J.V.); dhellman@pdx.edu (D.H.)
Peace Winds Japan, Tokyo 151-0063, Japan; lyu.sakuma@gmail.com
Correspondence: vshandas@pdx.edu; Tel.: +1-503-725-5222


Received: 14 December 2017; Accepted: 14 March 2018; Published: 30 March 2018
Abstract: Extreme urban heat is a powerful environmental stressor which poses a significant threat
to human health and well-being. Exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, heat events
are expected to become more intense and frequent as climate change progresses, though we have
limited understanding of the impact of such events on vulnerable populations at a neighborhood
or census block group level. Focusing on the City of Portland, Oregon, this study aimed to
determine which socio-demographic populations experience disproportionate exposure to extreme
heat, as well as the level of access to refuge in the form of public cooling centers or residential central
air conditioning. During a 2014 heat wave, temperature data were recorded using a vehicle-traverse
collection method, then extrapolated to determine average temperature at the census block group
level. Socio-demographic factors including income, race, education, age, and English speaking ability
were tested using statistical assessments to identify significant relationships with heat exposure
and access to refuge from extreme heat. Results indicate that groups with limited adaptive capacity,
including those in poverty and non-white populations, are at higher risk for heat exposure, suggesting
an emerging concern of environmental justice as it relates to climate change. The paper concludes
by emphasizing the importance of cultural sensitivity and inclusion, in combination with effectively
distributing cooling centers in areas where the greatest burden befalls vulnerable populations.
Keywords: urban heat; vulnerability; environmental justice; heat exposure; resilience
1. Introduction
Extreme heat poses a growing threat to human populations, with numerous implications for
public health, economic stability, and quality of life [1–3]. Past heat waves have had devastating,
deadly outcomes worldwide [4–6], and such events are expected to increase in intensity, frequency,
and duration as climate change progresses [7,8]. Although human settlements of any type may
experience the negative effects of extreme heat, these are and will continue to be most pronounced in
urban areas, the development practices of which are highly correlated with rising temperatures [9–11].
Currently, more than 50% of the world’s population is located in urban areas, and that figure is expected
to reach over 66% by 2050 [12]; with so many people potentially at risk of exposure, it is imperative
that local governments and planning practitioners recognize varying degrees of vulnerability among
urban residents.
Urban heat events—defined as those above the 90th percentile of historic temperatures [13]—are
an environmental stressor, placing economic, infrastructure, and hu …
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

error: Content is protected !!