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1,250 word count and there is a total of 4 questions each (not including in-text citation and references as the word count), a minimum of three scholarly sources are required in APA format. For the three scholarly sources, one from the textbook that’s posted below and the other two from an outside source (library articles-EBSCO). Let’s be sure to write it in own work 100% and give appropriately when using someone’s else work. Complete: a minimum of 1,250 words (total assignment) and three scholarly sources. Reference for Textbook Manning, G., Curtis, K., McMillen, S., and Attenweiler, B. (2011). Stress living & working in a changing world. Nashville, TN: Savant Learning Systems, Inc. In text citation: (Curtis, et al., 2011). Personality and Stress While some of your questions in the COMPLETE section are opinion based, many require research and facts to support your answers. In those questions, please utilize APA references and citations. Often opinion questions can be supported by research. APA references and citations should be used to support that as well. 1 List and briefly discuss the six building blocks for Successful change. 2 List and briefly discuss The Eight Stage Process of Creating Major Change. 3 Briefly discuss the 5 Steps of the Grieving Process. 4 If you were beginning a self-improvement effort at this time, where would you start? Physical health, social love, values, occupational satisfaction. What actions should you take?
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Part Three
Stress Across
R the Life Span
I
C
A
R
6. Coping D
with Change
,
7. Lives in Progress
A
8. The Meaning
D of Wellness
R
I
E
There are only two or three human stories, and they go on repeating themselves as fiercely as
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if they never happened before.—Willa Cather
N
E
In Part Three you will learn:
ƒƒ myths, realities, and strategies for dealing
2 with change;
ƒƒ sources of stress at each stage of life;4
7
ƒƒ the meaning and dimensions of wellness.
9
T
What is the “Take Away” Point?
S the developmental tasks of adulthood.
View change as a challenge and master
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Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span / Chapter Six: Coping with Change
Chapter Six
Coping with Change
Change in modern times
Nearly twenty-five hundred years ago, the Greek philosopher Heraclitus noted that one can
R
never cross the same river twice. In other words, change is a constant in life. In Managing at
I the volume, speed, and complexity of change
the Speed of Change, Daryl Conner writes that
are increasing in modern times. In our personal
Clives, we are constantly having to adjust to family changes, job changes, and health changes. In society at large, we face escalating changes in
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government, education, religious, and other institutions.1
R
People are acutely aware of change in their lives and many have difficulty adjusting. Among
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the causes of change are a growing worldwide population, faster communication and access to
,
information, increasing technological advancements,
and breakdown of traditional rules and
social order. In dealing with change, Conner identifies three D’s to avoid:
ƒƒ Denial of reality: “They don’t mean what
A they are saying.”
ƒƒ Distortion of facts: “Truth is what you
Dbelieve it to be.”
2
ƒƒ Delusion of selves: “It could never happen
R here.”
Instead of these responses to change, managing
I change successfully requires (1) a focused vision, (2) guiding values, (3) personal incentives,
E (4) supporting resources, (5) sound judgment,
and (6) an action plan. See Figure 6.1.
N
N for Successful Change3
Figure 6.1 Building Blocks
E
Vision
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>
Values
>
Incentives
>
Values
>
Incentives
>
Incentives
>
2
4
Resources
7
9
Resources
T
Resources
S
Resources
>
Judgment
>
>
Successful
Change
>
Judgment
> Action Plan >
Confusion
>
Judgment
> Action Plan >
Anxiety
>
Judgment
> Action Plan >
Drift
Judgment
> Action Plan > Frustration
Vision
>
Vision
>
Values
>
Vision
>
Values
>
Incentives
>
Vision
>
Values
>
Incentives
>
Resources
>
Vision
>
Values
>
Incentives
>
Resources
>
Action
Plan
Action Plan >
Judgment
Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span / Chapter Six: Coping with Change
>
Mistakes
False Starts
Without a vision or clear goals, there is confusion. Without values, there are no standards
of right and wrong, and anxiety results. Without incentives, there is lack of energy and the
individual drifts as the pawn of external forces. Without resources, there is lack of progress
and frustration is experienced. Without judgment, poor choices are made and mistakes occur.
Without an action plan and strategy for change, there are false starts.
In dealing with personal change, use this model and ask:
1. Do I have a clear, compelling vision; do I have a purpose in life with meaningful goals
to achieve?
2. Do I have values and principles that anchor and guide me?
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3. Do I have incentives and motivation Ito take responsibility for my own destiny?
4. What resources can I garner to achieve
C my goals?
A reason guide so that my judgments are sound?
5. Do I balance feelings with logic and let
6. What plan of action should I follow; R
what steps should I take for successful change?
D
In all walks and periods of life, we will be faced with the challenge of change. To the building
blocks of vision, values, incentives, resources,, judgment, and an action plan, add two essential
elements: the will to change and personal courage. In the final analysis, the ability to change
is less a function of capacity and more a function
A of determination and courage to live by one’s
convictions even in the face of adversity.
D
R
Generally, the biggest cause of stress in the workplace is change—change of people, change of
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products, change of place, change of pace. In America today, the average employee changes jobs
seven times, a radical shift from a generationE
ago, when lifetime service was commonplace.4
N
A case in point
N changes. The first was to work as a
Over the years, I have had six occupational
young professional in labor relations.EPrior to this, I knew school, sports, and
Change in the workplace
part-time jobs. To say the adjustment was a challenge is an understatement.
After four learning years on a factory
2 floor, the second change was to enter
the world of consulting. I did this reluctantly because (1) I didn’t think I knew
4
anything of special importance, and (2) I had a family to support and consult7 assignments and excellent colleagues
ing sounded shaky to me. Fascinating
made the difference.
9
T
The third change was the shift from business
to the university. The fact that I
was new to teaching was overcome by
the
desire
to teach and the support of
S
caring leaders.
The fourth change was a shift from teaching to administration. I was pleased
with the opportunity, but truly challenged to develop the attitude and skills of
a coordinator versus individual practitioner.
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Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span / Chapter Six: Coping with Change
The fifth shift was back into the classroom, which I saw as a step up. I thought
administration was good, but I thought teaching was great.
The sixth shift required going back to school and studying humanistic psychology, in contrast to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. This proved to be just
what the doctor ordered in terms of personal growth and satisfaction. What is
next, I’m not sure. But then, who is? — Author’s file notes (G. M.)
Change is the label under which we put all of the things that we have to do differently in the
future. In general, people dislike change. It makes a blank space of uncertainty between what
is and what might be.
R
I
Structure. Change in structure is often
C severely resisted by people. Mergers, acquisitions, right-sizing, and re-engineering activities typically involve tremendous change.
A
Tasks. Changes in the environment, including products and processes, require changes
R
in tasks. Driving forces include customer needs, productivity improvement, and qualD
ity initiatives.
,
Technology. Innovations in this area have dramatically increased the rate of change.
The four major types of change in the workplace are:5
1.
2.
3.
No industry, trade, or profession is immune to change caused by technological
advancements.
A
4. People. Change in any of the aboveD
variables can result in changing relationships—
change in managers, employees, coworkers,
and customers— and change within a
R
person, such as change in knowledge, attitude, and skills.
I
A particularly stressful change in the American
Eworkplace is the downsizing and reorganization
activities resulting from re-engineering business, reinventing government, and other manageNjob loss, particularly in their middle years, face
ment initiatives. Employees who are victims of
enormous economic, social, and personal stress.
N Employees who remain with an organization
often experience the “survivor syndrome.” They
E are afraid they will be part of the next round
of cuts, and they feel sadness and guilt over their coworkers’ fate. In addition, they often have
more work to do personally if production demands do not reflect the reduced number of people
to do the job.
2
4 the downsizing of organizations, but four stand
Many lessons have been learned from studying
out: (1) People need to be flexible and willing
7 to change in order to preserve superordinate
values and goals. (2) People need a positive attitude
toward lifelong learning to remain viable
9
in the workplace. (3) Career education is a survival skill, since people must learn to manage
T Consider that if one hundred employees with
their own careers. (4) Change can be expensive.
S a six-month change or transition resulting in
an average annual salary of $24,000 go through
two hours of distraction per day, the cost is $276,000.6
Coping with change taxes the resources of everyone involved—managers, nonmanagers, and
customers—especially if the change is sudden or disagreeable. Some change is unavoidable,
and change often results in worthwhile benefits, but too often the reverse is true, as the following example shows:
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Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span / Chapter Six: Coping with Change
One company had hardware and software products that were the biggest sellers in its particular market. Then it decided to re-engineer—because someone
got the idea that re-engineering was a good thing to do. In the process, it cut
its customer-service department by half. When the company completed its
change effort six months later, it discovered it didn’t have any customers left.
It took both its eyes off the ball by cutting back on customer service and ignoring its business so that it could follow the newest business craze. The company
is now in Chapter 11.7
How prevalent is change in the workplace? A recent study found that 42 percent of the North
American companies surveyed engaged in eleven or more change initiatives in a five-year
R frenzy” that is creating cynical, demoralized
period. In essence, the report describes a “change
employees and failing to produce meaningfulI improvements. The result is front-line workers
who are overstressed by all of the changes created
by managers frantically searching for the
C
next formula for success. Consider the following letter from an apologetic and enlightened
A
management.8
R
D
For the last decade, we have been trying
, to change our organization. Because
Dear Employees:
we are frightened for our economic future, we kept looking for—and finding— another program du jour. We’ve dragged you through quality circles, exA
cellence, total-quality management, self-directed
work teams, re-engineering,
and God knows what else. DesperateD
to find some way to improve our profitability, we switched from change to change almost as fast as we could read
about them in business magazines. R
I
All of this bounding from one panacea to the next gave birth to rampant bandwagonism. We forgot to consider eachEchange carefully, implement it thoughtfully, and wait patiently for results. N
Instead, we just kept on changing while
you progressed from skepticism to cynicism
to downright intransigence beN
cause you realized that all of these changes were just creating the illusion of
E
movement toward some ill-defined goal.
Now we’ve got a lot of burned-out workers and managers, tired of the change2
of-the-month club and unlikely to listen to our next idea, no matter how good
it might be. For our complicity in this4dismal state of affairs, we are sincerely
sorry.
7
9
The Management
T
Managing people through change
S responses to change at various organizational
Figure 6.2 shows a picture of all-too-common
levels.
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Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span / Chapter Six: Coping with Change
Figure 6.2 Organizational Response to Change9
Isolated


 
Top management

Middle management
 
 


 
Front-line
employees
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I
C
Squeezed
A
R
D
,
Resistant
A
D
R
I
Top management: Top leaders may underestimate the impact of change on lower levels of the
organization. They expect employees to “go E
along” when a change is announced and blame
middle managers if people resist or complain.
NThey may be so insulated that they truly don’t
know the results of their decisions and programs.
N
Middle management: Managers in the middleE
feel pressure to implement organizational change,
but often lack information and top leadership direction to be successful. They feel squeezed between resistant or withdrawn subordinates and demanding but out-of-touch superiors.
2
Front-line employees: Front-line people may 4
feel threatened by changes announced by management and may respond with denial and resistance, leading eventually to anger and worry. At this
7 casualties.People judge change primarily on the
point, employees may shut down and be morale
9 is personally disruptive, resistance can be great.
basis of how it will affect themselves. If a change
Even computer professionals resist change when
T computerization impacts their own lives.
People judge a change primarily on the basisSof how it will affect themselves. If a change is
personally disruptive, resistance can be great. Even computer professionals resist change when
computerization impacts their own lives. Loss of control is one of the things people dislike
most about change. Out of a need for control, they may choose dysfunction over uncertainty.
Often, the only way to get people to say good-bye to the past is to convince them that the price
of holding onto it is too high and that change is the only way to survive.
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Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span / Chapter Six: Coping with Change
Rules to guide leaders in implementing change
When organizations have the right goals in mind—they want to be customer-focused, qualityconscious, empowered, and profitable—and the reason for change is accounted for by market
competition, customer demands, and other forces, the question of how to implement or manage
change should be addressed. Seven rules should guide leaders in all change efforts:
1. Have a good reason for making a change. Consider each change carefully against the
following criteria: Will it support the organization’s mission, purpose, and goals; does
it reflect the organization’s basic principles and core values? If the answer is no, don’t
change. Change for change-sake is a waste of precious resources, including people’s time.
2. Personalize change. Let people know
R where you stand. Explain your commitment.
Why is the change important to you?I How will you be affected if the change is successful or if it fails? Why is this change important to them? What do they stand to gain
C
or lose? People may resist or give lukewarm
support to a change initiative unless they
see how they will personally benefit. A
R four proven principles: Involve the people who
3. Implement change thoughtfully. Follow
are affected by the change (the personDin the boat with you will never bore a hole in it);
go slow, giving people time to adjust (if you go too fast, you will have an empty train go,
ing down the tracks; sometimes you must slow down to increase the speed); keep people
informed through constant personal communication (however much you communicated
before, raise the level by 10); be available
A (not just mentally, but physically as well).
D coordinating change. Select someone who is
4. Put a respected person in charge of
trusted by all. Then tap the constructive
R power of the group through transition teams to
plan, coordinate, and communicate change efforts. Provide training in new knowledge,
I
attitudes, and skills to support change.
E
5. Tell the truth. When change is necessary, give the facts and rationale, not sugar-coated
Nis shared. Only after people know the truth and
pep talks. Trust goes up when the truth
come to terms with negative feelingsN
can they focus effectively on the future.
E for a seed to grow, and it takes time to realize
6. Wait patiently for results. It takes time
benefits from change. Change that is too rapid can be destructive. Rush the process and
reduce the results. The effective leader knows personal, political, and financial costs
2
accompany any organizational change, and is willing to pay the price. To ensure suc4 and stay personally involved.
cess, install methods for tracking progress
7
7. Acknowledge and reward people. As change is made, take time to recognize people
and show appreciation. Acknowledge9the struggles, sacrifices, and contributions people have made. A word of thanks goesTa long way.
S remember the different time and information
In helping people through change, leaders must
perspectives of different levels of the organization. Senior leaders may be anxious to implement changes that front-line personnel are just learning about. Listening, understanding and
patience are necessary for successful change to occur.
Social psychologist Kurt Lewin identified a three-step process for managing people through
change. The same steps apply in all change initiatives – parents in the home, managers on the
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Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span / Chapter Six: Coping with Change
job, and leaders in the community. First, unfreeze the status quo. Second, move to the desired
state. Third, live by conditions that become the new, but not rigid, status quo.10
ƒƒ Unfreezing involves reducing or eliminating resistance to change. As long as people
drag their heels about a change, it will never be implemented effectively. To accept
change, people must first deal with and resolve feelings about letting go of the old. Only
after people have dealt successfully with endings are they ready to make transitions.
ƒƒ Moving to the desired state usually involves considerable two-way communication, including group discussion. Lewin advised that the person managing change should make suggestions and encourage discussion. Brainstorming, benchmarking, field study, and library
research are good techniques for channeling
the energies of the group. The best way to
R
overcome resistance to change is to involve people in the changes that will affect them.
I
ƒƒ Living by new conditions involves such
C factors as pointing out the successes of the
change and finding ways to reward the people involved in implementing the change.
A and increases their willingness to participate
This shows appreciation for their efforts
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in future change efforts.
D
In dealing with change, employees are often, faced with uncertainty and lack of role clarity.
The Role of the Individual
Often there are more questions than answers. In such times, success belongs to the committed,
to those individuals who work from the heart and adjust quickly when change occurs. These
individuals create role clarity for themselves.A
They chase down the information they need and
D purpose and goals. Then they attack the work
align their efforts with the organization’s larger
to be done as best as they understand it to be.R
Two rules to follow are: 1) contribute more than
you cost; and 2) make your customer your first priority.
I
Imagine a work force that costs more than it E
contributes; this is a dying institution. Imagine a
work force that contributes more than it costs; this is a thriving, growing institution that meets
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the needs of employers and employees alike. The successful individual focuses on performance
and results, not tenure, activity level, or goodNintentions. The successful employee contributes
more than he costs.
E
The second rule is to put your customer first. Identify who you are supposed to serve—the
paying customer, another department, a direct
2 report, etc. Then get close to your customer.
Anticipate her needs, know her preferences, and develop a reputation for responsiveness.
4
Make customer satisfaction your number one commitment. The successful individual makes
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the customer king.
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To personalize the subject, consider yourself: Are your efforts aligned with your organization’s
purpose and goals? Do you contribute more T
than you cost? Who is your customer and what
evidence shows that his or her interests are your
S number one priority?
Understanding complex organizational change
There are many models for understanding organizational change. One of the best is an eightstage process provided by John Kotter of Harvard University. Kotter’s model summarizes the
steps necessary to prod …
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