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1,250 word count and there is a total of 4 questions (not including in-text citation and references as the word count), a minimum of three scholarly sources are required in APA format. For the three scholarly sources, one from the textbook that’s posted below and the other two from an outside source (library articles-EBSCO). Let’s be sure to write it in own work 100% and give appropriately when using someone’s else work. Complete: a minimum of 1,250 words (total assignment) and three scholarly sources. Reference for Textbook Manning, G., Curtis, K., McMillen, S., and Attenweiler, B. (2011). Stress living & working in a changing world. Nashville, TN: Savant Learning Systems, Inc. In text citation: (Curtis, et al., 2011). Understanding Stress While some of your questions in the COMPLETE section are opinion based, many require research and facts to support your answers. In those questions, please utilize APA references and citations. Often opinion questions can be supported by research. APA references and citations should be used to support that as well. 1 Complete the 7 Healthy Habits Assessment on page 24 of your reading. Score your results and briefly explain your findings. 2 Briefly discuss the difference between Eustress and Distress. 3 Complete The Social Readjustment Rating Scale on page 36 of your reading. Score your results and write DONE in the complete section. 4 Discuss the findings of your Social Readjustment Rating Scale. If your score alarms you, what are your plans to deal with those results? If your score is low is that a sign you should take on a new challenge?
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Second Edition
Savant Learning Systems, Inc.
1801 West End Avenue, Suite 1610
Nashville, Tennessee 37203
www.savantlearningsystems.com
Stress: Living and Working in a Changing World, 2nd ed.
Copyright © 2011 Savant Learning Systems, Inc., George Manning, Kent Curtis, Steve
McMillen, and William Attenweiler. All rights reserved. Except for short excerpts for review purposes, no part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,
without permission in writing from
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the publisher.
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Printed in the United States of America
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Graphics and Layout Design: Susan Rubendall
Manuscript Editor: Jennifer Futrell
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Creative Director: Terri Merrill
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
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Stress: living and working in a changing world,
E 2nd ed.
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536 pg. 27 cm.
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Edited by George Manning, Kent Curtis, Steve McMillen, and William Attenweiler. Includes
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bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-9844426-1-4
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1. Stress (Psychology) 2. Stress management. I.4Manning, George, 1943II. Curtis, Kent, 1939III.
McMillen, Steve, 1953-
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Table of Contents
Preface …………………………………………………………………………………………….x
Acknowledgments……………………………………………………………………………xiii
About the Authors…………………………………………………………………………xv
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………xvii
Part One: Understanding Stress………………………………………………………..1
1 Stress Physiology……………………………………………………………….2
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2 Stress in Your World………………………………………………………….28
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Part Two: Personality and Stress……………………………………………………..59
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3 Personality Plays a Part……………………………………………………..60
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4 Wisdom of the Ages………………………………………………………….74
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5 Characteristics of a Hardy Personality…………………………………92
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, …………………………………………102
Part Three: Stress Across the Life Span.
6 Coping with Change………………………………………………………..103
7 Lives in Progress…………………………………………………………….122
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8 The Meaning of Wellness…………………………………………………145
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Part Four: Personal Stress…………………………………………………………….155
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9 The Peaceful Mind………………………………………………………….156
10 Know Thyself…………………………………………………………………171
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11 Integrity…………………………………………………………………………189
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Part Five: Interpersonal Stress………………………………………………………203
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12 Our Social Nature……………………………………………………………204
13 Healthy Relationships………………………………………………………226
14 No One is an Island…………………………………………………………237
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Part Six : Stress in the Workplace………………………………………………….255
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15 Job Stress……………………………………………………………………257
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16 The Job Burnout Phenomenon………………………………………….284
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17 Work Morale…………………………………………………………………..297
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Part Seven: Peak Performance………………………………………………………321
18 Be All You Can Be………………………………………………………….322
19 Personal Performance………………………………………………………338
20 Time Management………………………………………………………………….363
Part Eight: Stress Prevention………………………………………………………..385
21 Avoid Self-Medication…………………………………………………….386
22 The 1 x 3 x 7 = 21 Plan……………………………………………………401
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………454
Appendices
A. Expectation of Life at Birth and Projections 2007………………………461
Life Expectancy by Sex, Age, and Race 2007…………………………….463
B. Expectation of Life and Expected Deaths
by Race, Sex, and Age 2007……………………………………………………..464
R Stress………………………………………..467
C. Other Resources for Managing
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Learning Tools
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Life Expectancy Quiz………………………………………………………….. xviii
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Seven Healthy Habits……………………………………………………………….19
Social Readjustment Rating ScaleR(SRRS)………………………………….30
What is Your Hassle Quotient?………………………………………………….40
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Who’s on Top—the World or You?…………………………………………….42
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The Stress Barometer —Type A, Type B Behavior Test………………..64
A Star to Live By…………………………………………………………………….93
The Big Five Personality Test…………………………………………………135
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All Things Considered……………………………………………………………141
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The Paired-Comparison Technique for Making Life Choices………149
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Life in Perspective…………………………………………………………………151
What Is Your World View?……………………………………………………..158
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Quo Vadis—Where Are You Going?………………………………………..165
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Personal Values—What is Important to You?…………………………….173
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Characteristics of the Fully Functioning
Person…………………………193
Family Report Card………………………………………………………………..209
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Cardinal, Central, and Secondary Traits
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Personal Evaluation……………………………………………………………….228
The Stress Encounter……………………………………………………………..241
The NWNL Workplace Stress Test…………………………………………..263
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Up in Smoke—Are You Burned Out?.
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How Satisfied Are You?………………………………………………………….306
7 of morale?…………………………307
Morale Survey—What is your level
Personal Best and Lessons Learned………………………………………….323
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Uncommon Qualities of Peak Performers…………………………………328
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Understanding Personality and Occupational Types……………………332
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The Performance Pyramid………………………………………………………340
Putting Your Best Foot Forward………………………………………………358
Personal Time Management Checklist………………………………………368
Stress Management Contract…………………………………………………..456
Part One
Understanding
Stress
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1. Stress D
Physiology
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2. Stress in Your World
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The job of managing a career isn’t too bad. Deadlines, travel, and all the meetings are fine. I
I baby girl. Being a husband and spending time
can handle being a father to two boys and a new
with my wife is great. The work of keeping upEa home and yard is OK too. It’s doing all of these
things at the same time that’s killing me. I hope
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In Part One you will learn:
ƒƒ the definition, causes, and consequences of stress;
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ƒƒ the “critical balance” between the demands you face and your resources for coping.
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What is the “Take Away” Point? T
Maintain balance between stress in your
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ƒƒ the importance of health habits and social relationships for managing stress;
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Part One: Understanding Stress / Chapter One: Stress Physiology
Chapter One
Stress Physiology
Introduction
In 1996 the World Health Organization spoke
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industrialized world. The issue had nothing to do with acute disease such as AIDS, infectious
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disease, cancer, or pollution. Instead, a chronic nonmedical problem—stress—was the organization’s primary health concern for the world.C
Today, stress at work and stress in society remain
major health concerns.1
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A 1992 survey found that 28 percent of Americans
felt under great stress either almost every
day or several days a week. Almost twenty years
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high stress every day, and the consequences are great. In the United States, approximately 80
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percent of all non-trauma deaths are caused by stress-related illnesses. In 2006, the American
Psychological Association reported that many people are failing to deal with stress effectively.2
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Whoever says life is easy has not lived long enough. If you do not manage stress successfully,
D are not just meaningless sayings:
the price can be great. The following statements
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“That accident took ten years off my life.”
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“I was sick with worry.”
“This job is killing me.”
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“He gives me a pain in the neck.”
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The stress caused by an accident can age you N
prematurely; the stress caused by emotional worry can make you physically sick; your job can
E affect your health; and the stress from dealing
with difficult people and unpleasant situations can cause aches and pains in the neck, stomach,
and other places.
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Learning to manage stress effectively is one4of life’s developmental tasks. It is the secret to
living a long and satisfying life. For the typical person, half the source of stress is job related
and half is connected to home and family. If 7
the workplace is stressful, it helps to have a port
9 front, ideally there is smooth sailing on the
in the storm at home; if there is stress on the home
job. The person who is fighting a two-front T
war—problems on the job and problems in the
home—has double trouble and is a candidate for what used to be called “breakdown” and is
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now known as “burnout.”3
What is stress?
The term “stress” has been used in various ways by many theorists. Some define stress as a
stimulus or event, such as loss of a job. Others define stress as the response to or effect of physiological arousal, sometimes referred to as “strain.” An approach that combines both views is
to define stress as a transaction—physical and emotional wear and tear resulting from real or
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Part One: Understanding Stress / Chapter One: Stress Physiology
imagined problems.4 Types of problems include:
ƒƒ Pressures, such as the effort required to raise a family and earn a living. A midcareer
professional reports:
Industrial-strength pressure
Sometimes my chest feels like a drum and bugle corps marching and pounding. Then
I know I have overdone it, and the answer is to shut down, go away, and rest, cursing
myself for having let things get so bad.
ƒƒ Conflicts, such as choosing between alternative careers, mates, and lifestyles. Conflicts
include arguments with others and arguments with self. In Measure for Measure,
R will and will not.” Consider a young profesShakespeare wrote, “I am at war ‘twixt
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sional experiencing four basic conflicts:
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Decisions, decisions, decisions
Do I take job A or job B? I like them
A equally, and the pay is the same. (Approachapproach conflicts are those in which
Rwe have to choose between two equally desirable, but mutually exclusive, people, objects, or events.)
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I want to marry Bill, but if I do, I will have to move to China. (Approach-avoidance
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conflicts involve having to choose whether or not to pursue a course that has both positive and negative qualities or consequences.)
Athese negative employment conditions? Either
Do I confront my boss, or do I accept
choice is bad. (Avoidance-avoidance D
conflict is having to choose between two undesirable options.)
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I have a choice of two homes. One isI well-constructed and charming, but the location
isn’t good. The other is in a good location,
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double approach-avoidance conflict means having to choose between two alternatives,
N attributes.)
each of which has positive and negative
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ƒƒ Frustrations, such as wanting but not being able to afford a home of your own, or
E with someone you love. Consider the case of
wanting but not having good relations
one man, married more than forty years:
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We have met the enemy, and he is us
I love my wife with all my heart, and4she loves me. In fact, we each think the other is
the best person a person can be. Yet life together is filled with stress. We talk at each
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other, around each other, or fail to talk at all. For both of us, it is the single biggest
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frustration in our lives. Others can’t understand
it. They think she is an angel and I’m
a saint. But we both know, it isn’t easy.
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S and age much the same as physical structures
The human organism wears down with problems
deteriorate from weather and time. Problems may be caused by self or caused by others. They
may occur on the job or in the home. They may be large or small. They may develop early in
life or late. Yet each problem exacts a toll; each results in physical and emotional wear and tear
on the person. Like a metal bridge that deteriorates from the effects of weather and time, the
human organism wears down and tears down with pressure, conflict, and frustration.
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Part One: Understanding Stress / Chapter One: Stress Physiology
Stressors can be acute, such as the death of a loved one; sequential, such as a series of events
leading to a marriage or move; intermittent, such as monthly bills and chores; or chronic, such
as the daily commute through rush-hour traffic or the daily stress involved with one’s job.
Each person has a breaking point for dealing with stress. A period of too much pressure, too
many conflicts, and too much frustration can take one closer and closer to that point. That is
why it is important to anticipate potential stressors and plan how to deal with them.
Consider yourself: What is your major source of stress, and is this primarily a pressure, conflict,
or frustration? One can see that it is possible to have an interaction effect. For example, pressure to perform can lead to interpersonal conflict, and this can lead to feelings of frustration.
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Stressors tend to be different for different ages and types of people. A recent survey of college
I of stress: (1) final exam week, (2) test anxiety,
students revealed the following top ten sources
C off assignments, (6) financial pressures, (7)
(3) academic workload, (4) future plans, (5) putting
grades received, (8) guilt from not performing
A better, (9) worrying about not exercising, and
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(10) competitiveness for grades.
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The general adaptation syndrome D
A clumsy scientist can be blamed for introducing stress into our lives. Hans Selye, a young
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endocrinologist in the 1930s, had a habit of dropping his laboratory rats on the floor, chasing
them around the room, and trapping them beneath the sink. Soon they developed ulcers and
shrunken immune systems. Selye did many tests
A and came to the realization that his clumsiness
was making them sick. Selye, a Hungarian born in Vienna and working in Canada, searched
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for an English word to describe this response to life under tension. Borrowed from the field of
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engineering, the term “stress” was born.7
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Our knowledge of stress has been greatly influenced by Selye, who served his entire profesE began his research on stress in 1936. By the
sional life at McGill University in Montreal. Selye
time of his death in 1982, he had published more
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books, and was recognized as the father of stress physiology and stress education.
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Selye’s data provided evidence that the bodyE
goes through a predictable response to any kind
of demand. He identified this response as the “general adaptation syndrome” (GAS). The GAS
is triggered by any threat or challenge to the physical or emotional well-being of the organism.
2 reaction, the resistance stage, and the exhausThe response occurs in three phases—the alarm
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tion stage.
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9 physiological resistance dips slightly below
In the first phase, the alarm reaction, the body’s
normal as preparation is made to fight, escape,Tor otherwise address the challenge of the stressor. With initial shock, temperature and blood pressure, as well as blood fluid and potassium
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levels, decline and muscles slacken. This is followed by an arousal response that includes the
The alarm reaction
release of powerful hormones called catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, etc.), which
create a readiness to perform, including defense for survival. Important reactions include:
ƒƒ surges in heart rate that increase the heart’s pumping ability, thus delivering additional
power and blood volume at a moment’s notice;
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Part One: Understanding Stress / Chapter One: Stress Physiology
ƒƒ elevated blood sugar levels that supply instant muscle energy;
ƒƒ diversion of blood from the digestive organs to the skeletal muscles and brain, allowing for a quick getaway or knockout blow;
ƒƒ faster blood clotting that reduces the likelihood of bleeding to death from wounds;
ƒƒ increased breathing rate, so that more oxygen is available to the body’s vital organs.
In addition to the catecholamines, the alarm reaction stimulates production of other substances,
including endorphins, which decrease the body’s sensitivity to pain, and hormones, which can
increase both visual and auditory alertness. In the alarm phase, the body shows generalized
stress arousal, but no one specific organ system
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the body systems show measurable changes.9
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The organism cannot maintain high levels of C
shock and arousal for long. Indeed, under severe
stress, the alarm reaction can lead to sickness and even death. Prolonged high blood sugar level
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has the effect of decreasing resistance to infection, and the alarm reaction to intense fear may
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result in heart stoppage.10
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, into a second phase, a stage of resistance. In
Under less severe conditions, the organism enters
Stage of resistance
the stage of resistance, the organism may appear to adapt; however, it is vulnerable. The stress
response is channeled into the specific organAsystem or process most appropriate for dealing
with it. However, this adaptation process contributes to stress-related illness. The specific organ
D activation it may wear out and malfunction. If
system becomes activated, and with prolonged
additional stress is introduced, it may overload
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of constant vigilance can lead to fatigue, sickness,
I and the third phase of the GAS, exhaustion.
Stage of exhaustion
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If stress continues, the final phase, the stage of
Nexhaustion, may be reached. During this stage,
the immune system is considerably weakened, increasing the likelihood of infection and tisN
sue breakdown. As with stress on a Holland dike, too much overload, and the sea pours in.
Physiologically, this can mean breakdown ofEthe body’ …
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