Problem-SolutionIn Unit V, you picked a periphery or semi-periphery nation and began researching a social problem(s) being faced in the nation along with solutions to that problem.In Unit VII, you are going to write a Problem-Solution Research Paper (at least four pages long) analyzing some of the social issues and struggles being faced by the nation in the periphery or semi-periphery region and present solutions to these issues. You will be incorporating important course concepts into your research paper as well, such as globalization, importance of geography, and sustainability. The material from the Unit V essay can be used in your Unit VII Problem-Solution Paper. You can, but are not required to, use section headings in the final paper.Problem-Solution Research Paper Instructions & RequirementsCheck ListYour paper is required to address the following:Introduction of Problem: Introduce the country you are presenting and the major social issue (economic, political, environmental, political, war, poverty, etc.). Include a description of the nation’s background, geography, demographics, and other important details about the nation that are important for your presentation of the problem. Present details about the social issue being faced in the nation. You can present more than one issue. This section should contain research you found on the issue and your own analysis. Make sure to include who the problem impacts and the seriousness of the issue. You want to convey to the reader why it is a problem. Present your thesis or main argument in the introduction.Solutions: Research and present solutions to help the nation you have chosen to research. You are required to discuss in depth at least 3 possible solutions/suggestions to help the nation address the issue. This section should contain research you found on the solutions and your own analysis. Discuss the following: why it is the best solution, who is involved in implementing the solution, and the potential positive and negative impact of implementing the proposed solution(s). At least one solution is required to contain the concept of sustainability in some capacity. (Note: You can look up sustainability in the textbook glossary which shows where in the textbook sustainability has been discussed. This will provide ideas on how sustainability fits into your suggested solutions).Conclusion: Make certain to include the following: Summary of what was discussed and any final thoughts. You can talk about how the issue impacts the future, why there is a need for future research, or propose a call to action It is required that you apply the term globalization in your paper in some capacity. Discuss how globalization or inter-connectedness relates to the country’s background, the issue, or the solution. This discussion could involve concepts discussed in the textbook like the impact of colonialization, imperialism, technology, environment, immigration/migration, Westernization, terrorism, geopolitics, trade, military, etc. In other words, you must incorporate globalization into your project in some capacity. You can view pp. 51,175, 238, and/or 279 for examples of how globalization impacts nations. It is required that you incorporate the importance of geography in some capacity in your paper. It can be part of the country background, problem, or solution. Your paper should be written in APA style with a minimum of four pages (not including the title and reference pages). You may include images, graphs, and/or maps in an appendix if you wish, but they do not count towards the four pages of written content that is required. Source Requirement: Your paper must contain research you have gathered from a minimum of three scholarly sources (not including the textbook). Sources can be from reputable news or magazine sources, organizational or governmental websites, or peer reviewed journal sources. Textbook:Knox, P. L., & Marston, S. A. (2016). Human geography: Places and regions in global context (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
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UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VII
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
1. Discuss key concepts in human geography including place, region, movement, and landscape.
1.1 Discuss the impact of massive population movements on the urban environment.
4. Investigate past and current economic relationships, patterns, and issues within the three tiers of the
4.1 Discuss economic patterns in cities.
4.2 Discuss economic issues faced in cities.
Chapter 11: Urbanization and the Global Urban System
Chapter 12: City Spaces: Urban Structure
In this unit, we are studying the urban environment. In the readings in this unit, you will learn about spatial and
growth patterns in cities, issues being faced by cities in the core and periphery, and the importance of urban
planning. This lecture will focus on megacities. Megacities are centrally located urban centers containing 10
million residents or more. In 1990 the world had only 10 megacities . “As of 2014, the Earth has 28 megacities
worldwide—16 in Asia, four in Latin America, three each in Africa and Europe, and two in North America”
(Rowe, 2014, para. 4). The two in the United States are Los Angeles and New York City. Most of these
megacities are located in the periphery or semi-periphery in the Southern Hemisphere. “Essentially
megacities in developing countries should be seen for what they are: a tragic replaying of the worst aspects of
the mass urbanization that occurred previously in the West” (Kotkin, 2011, para. 3). Knox and Marston (2016)
discuss the growth of these megacities. “In the most massive population movement the world has ever seen,
millions of people continue to pour out of rural villages each year, hoping for fresh economic opportunity in the
world’s cities” (p. 415). Dobbs (2010) states China and India will be the leaders in the forthcoming urban age.
It is estimated that half of Asia will become urbanized with about a billion people transitioning from country to
urban life. It is projected that in the next 20 years, 30% of all urban dwellers will live in India and China
(Dobbs, 2010). In the first lecture for this course, global trends were discussed. One of those top 10 predicted
global trends was the growing importance of the megacity (Poushter, 2013). Why are megacities so
important? The concentration of human capital in these mammoth cities has both positive and negative
impacts on global environmental, health, and economic patterns.
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New York Ci ty
Megacities are economic powerhouses. “Today the world’s megacities account for 15% of global GDP, and
that figure is projected to rise to 20% by the end of the decade” (Geiling & Esri, 2014, para. 4). “The megacity
will be home to China’s and India’s growing middle class es—creating consumer markets larger than today’s
Japan and Spain, respectively” (Dobbs, 2010, para. 7). Kalan (2014) argues that the process of
agglomeration economies is a big benefit to the megacities . Knox and Marston (2016) state these economic
linkages and interdependencies create lower costs and spur further economic growth. With a greater number
of people comes greater innovation and creativity, which leads to more jobs . There is also the benefit of social
mobility created by the economic growth in the megacities (Rowe, 2014). As citizens make more money, they
are able to afford better housing, health care, and education for their children.
Despite the numerous advantages of megacities, there are serious social, economic, and environmental
The way in which megacities grow—often without an overarching controlling vision—only adds
to the issues that they bring with them. This is largely due, says DESA, ‘to the challenges of
providing urban jobs, housing, energy and infrastructure to mitigate urban poverty, expansion
of slums and a deterioration of the urban environment.’ (Rowe, 2014, para. 15)
This is often called overurbanization, which is when the population outpaces jobs, housing, and resources like
water. Massive overcrowding in megacities leads to an increase in crime, health epidemics, traffic congestion,
and strain on water and sanitation resources (Kotkin, 2011). For example, the waste treatment in Jakarta has
failed to keep up with the population. Now, when it rains, sewage and garbage flood the low-lying areas,
which leads to dengue fever and other illnesses (Marshall, 2005).
Megacities, because of their large population and size, have a significant impact on the environment . Both air
and water pollution are serious issues in many of these megacities. In these cities, air-pollution related
illnesses are much more common. “Cities are responsible for 70% of the world’s carbon emissions, especially
those that sprawled out as they grew” (Geiling & Esri, 2014, para. 5). The rapid economic growth and
population influx in megacities leads to increased deforestation and destruction of natural habitats .
Deforestation decreases biodiversity, endangers animals, and removes trees that help counter carbon
emissions. In the conflict between environmental preservation and economic growth, the economy typically
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Innovative urban planning, more investment, and proper governance are critical to addressing the issues
faced by megacities. In super-dense areas, it is impossible for every person to have their own car. Forwardthinking urban planning is required for mass transit and other transportation management that will cope with
the growing populations. Sustainable solutions like clean energy are essential in curtailing pollution and
carbon emissions. While in the Northern hemisphere, there are a lot of resources available to handle
challenges faced in megacities, it is not the case in the global south.
‘There’s talk of US$350 trillion of investment in infrastructure in the next decade [in cities in
the global south], so it’s important to get it right and make sure the development is
sustainable’ says Evaeus (Manager of Climate Control Communications at WWF). (Rowe,
2014, para. 42)
Ashok Detar, chairman of the Mumbai Environmental Social Network states that periphery countries need to
work to create jobs and infrastructure in more manageable midsize urban areas to relieve some of the influx
into the current megacities (Kotkin, 2011). Besides improving resources and creating sustainable solutions, it
is important to create other economic centers to reduce the migration to the megacities.
The growth of megacities promises to be a continuing trend. These large cities provide economic, cultural,
and social benefits that remain a draw. However, cities that suffer from overurbanization struggle with
providing the critical infrastructure and resources that their dwellers require. If they fail to meet these
challenges, the environmental, health, and economic fallout will be devastating.
The good news, at least for optimists, is that the developed world already has come through
the urbanization wringer and survived to tell the tale…. America’s two current megacities,
New York and Los Angeles, face their share of challenges, but few of these could reasonably
be described as apocalyptic. (Lewis, 2007, para. 7)
Do you think the megacities in the developing world will be able to keep up with the growing demand for
housing and jobs? How can these megacities successfully address the issues resulting from overcrowding?
What will the future hold for megacities in the periphery and semi-periphery? What role should sustainability
Here is a great source that shows the growth of some of the world’s megacities . Visit the website below and
see for yourself the geographical growth of some of the world’s biggest cities over time:
The Age of Megacities. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://storymaps.esri.com/stories/2014/growth-of-cities/
Dobbs, R. (2010). Mega cities. Foreign Policy, 2010(181), 132+.
Geiling, N., & Esri. (2014, September). Make cities explode in size with these interactive maps. Smithsonian
Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/make-cities-explode-sizethese-interactive-maps-180952832/?no-ist
Kalan, J. (2014). Think again: Megacities. Foreign Policy, 2014(206), 69+.
Kotkin, J. (2011, April). The problem with megacities. Forbes. Retrieved from
Lewis, M. (2007, June). Megacities of the future. Forbes. Retrieved from
SOC 2010, Cultural Geography
Marshall, J. (2005). Environmental health: Megacity, mega mess. Nature, 437(7057),
UNIT x STUDY
Metz, S. (2014). Strategic horizons: U.S. military is not ready for the age of megacities. World Politics Review,
Poushter, J. (2013). Experts rank the top 10 global trends. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/facttank/2013/11/20/experts-rank-the-top-10-global-trends/
Rowe, M. (2014). Growing pains. Geographical, 86(10), 29+.
Witowski, W. (n.d.). New York [Image]. Retrieved from https://download.unsplash.com/30/ny-filtered.jpg
Learning Activities (Nongraded)
Visit the UN Habitat (unhabitat.org) website to discover more about cities in peripheral regions . Review some
of the urban themes (energy, mobility, climate change, etc.) and urban initiatives presented at the UN Habitat
website. Pick an urban theme from the website and at least one urban initiative presented on the UN Habitat
website to address that theme. UN initiatives are listed as part of each theme. Evaluate the initiative. Does the
initiative seem effective? Is the initiative sustainable? What stakeholders are involved in the initiative? What
positive or negative impact could this particular initiative have?
This is an alternative assignment to get you thinking more critically . This is not a written assignment that you
turn in. You can write a one page essay discussing your responses to the above questions.
Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit
them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.
SOC 2010, Cultural Geography
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