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1.Short essay – no longer than 200 words. Write about how a middle school food service cafeteria can benefit from composting. Include in your essay the answer to these questions:* How would such a program be set up using students and/or volunteer parents (Parent-Teacher Association)? * How would a composting program fit into the Systems Model? How could the school benefit? What outside programs or entities could benefit? * Give two examples of corporations that use composting in their operations, and how they manage their composting programs..2.Short essay. No longer than 200 words. What you have learned about food service management in NTRS 4140, and specifically the role of the manager in the Systems Model. Include all aspects of the Systems Model.
1.0_lecture_12_ch12_resource_conservation.pdf

foodservice_management_principles_and_practices_13th_edition.pdf

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Foodservice Management
THIRTEENTH EDITION
CHAPTER
12
Resource Conservation
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Introduction
• Waste
 We generate more than 250 million tons of
solid waste a year in this country.
 The foodservice industry is one of the major
contributors to this large amount of waste.
continued on next slide
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Introduction
• Waste management in FS
 Foodservices are actively engaged in solid
waste management programs that include
source reduction and recycling of virtually
every waste product.
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Key Concepts
• “Green” practices (energy)
 There are many ecological and economic
benefits that derive from a foodservice’s
adoption of “green” design practices.
 Development of an effective energy
management program can begin with an
analysis of utilities.
continued on next slide
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Key Concepts
• Use and maintenance of equipment
 Proper use and maintenance of
equipment contributes to energy
conservation.
 Additional steps, relative to equipment
use, can be taken to maximize energy
conservation.
continued on next slide
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Key Concepts
• Effective energy management requires
commitment by organizational leaders and
participation by every employee within the
organization.
• Solid waste management is an
ethically, legally, and economically
mandated priority of foodservice
management today.
continued on next slide
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Key Concepts
• The first step in an integrated solid waste
management program is source reduction.
• Recycling reduces waste handling costs,
dependence on scarce natural resources,
manufacturing energy costs, amount of
material sent to landfills, and the potential
pollution of nature.
continued on next slide
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Key Concepts
• Composting is growing in popularity as a
means to manage solid waste in
foodservice operations.
• Waste assessment, audits, and analyses
can be used to determine the amount and
type of waste generated by a foodservice
operation.
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Conservation of Natural
Resources
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Green Design
• Goals of green foodservice:
Reduce or eliminate negative impact
Develop sustainable site plan
Safeguard water and water use efficiencies
Determine optimal facility and equipment
energy efficiency
 Make use of recyclable and recycled materials
 Preserve indoor environmental quality




continued on next slide
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Figure 12.1 Award-winning “green” building at the Woods Hole Research Center, MA.
Source: Courtesy of Charles C. Benton, Professor of Architecture, UC Berkeley.
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Energy Conservation
• The ventilation system
 This is the single biggest controllable energy
user in most commercial kitchens.
 Manufacturers of cooking equipment are
putting more insulation into their equipment to
keep the kitchen cooler.
 The cost of heating and cooling a kitchen can
be reduced by transferring air from the dining
room.
continued on next slide
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Energy Conservation
• Mixing power sources
 The deregulation of electricity and gas has
given rise to some new options.
• Compact co-generator system
• Hot water by-product
 Two new alternative energy sources
• Wind
• Fuel cells – tie-ins to existing grids; tax credits
• Tie-ins to existing grids
• Tax credits
• Government grants
continued on next slide
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Energy Conservation
• Heating water
 Hot water generated by
• Dish washers
• Booster heaters
• Coffee urns, thermal pots
continued on next slide
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Energy Conservation
• Lighting
 Turn off lights in areas not being used and
areas using daylight.
 Computerized lighting control
• Use equipment at full capacity.
• Turn equipment on only when needed.
• Practice preventative maintenance.
continued on next slide
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Energy Conservation
• Utility companies offer energy-saving
suggestions.
• Other energy conservation suggestions
(Energy Star ratings)





Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning system
Water heating
Dishwashing
Cooking equipment
Ranges
continued on next slide
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Energy Conservation
• Other energy conservation suggestions
(Energy Star ratings)







Convection ovens
Steamers
Grooved griddle
Broilers
Salamanders/cheese melters
Braising pans/tilting skillets
Fryers
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Water Conservation
• Simple practices such as:
Turning off faucets completely
Running dishwashers at full capacity
Using low-flow toilets
Serving water to customers only when
requested
 Using gray water




• Wash water and other waste that goes
down sink drains
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Solid Waste Management
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Solid Waste Management
• An urgent need exists to reduce the
amount of municipal solid waste
(MSW).
• An integrated solid waste
management system should be
employed by all foodservice operations.
 Example: LAUSD generates ~ 60,000 tons
of trash each year—70% from foodservice
(42,000 tons of foodservice waste from LAUSD!
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Source Reduction
• The design and manufacturing of products
and packaging of products with minimum
toxic content and minimum volume of
material and/or a longer life
• Waste-management tools for source reduction:





Cardboard crushers
Garbage disposals in all prep sinks (trimmings)
Pulper extractor systems – shred/sanitize garbage
Trash crushers – can compactors & glass smashers
Polystyrene (styrofoam) “melters”
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Recycling
• A series of activities in which discarded
materials are collected, sorted, processed,
and converted into raw materials to be
repurposed into new products.
• Many foodservice operations have
appointed a recycling coordinator and
formed recycling teams.
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Composting
• Composting conserves resources by
keeping valuable organic material from
being landfilled.
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Figure 12.8
The composting cycle.
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Composting
• Animal feed
 The advantages of feeding food waste to
animals
• Waste is diverted from landfills.
• Nutrient density of animal diets can be
increased.
• Ration costs can be reduced and farmers’
profits increased.
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Fat to Fuel
• U.S. military engineers are testing a plan
to recycle used restaurant oil into
biodiesel, a cleaner burning fuel.
 One gallon of used cooking oil →
one gallon of biodiesel fuel for vehicles
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Incineration and Landfilling
• These are the final alternatives in the
integrated waste management system.
 Incineration
• Reduces amount of solid waste
• Can produce energy
 Landfillls
• Last resort
• Least desired
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Facility Waste Assessments
• Waste Assessment
 A systematic way to identify waste
reduction opportunities in a specific
operation.
• 3 purposes:
• Establishes a better understanding of current
purchasing, waste generation, and waste
disposal practices
• Identifies potential waste reduction options
• Establishes a baseline from which to measure
the success of the waste reduction program
continued on next slide
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Facility Waste Assessments
• A waste assessment helps to identify
those actions that will have the greatest
impact and cost savings
• Waste stream analysis
 Collects waste from beginning to close
 Sorts by type of waste (food, trash, etc.)
 Weighs each category of waste products
• Waste audit
 Determines amount and types of waste produced
by specific location in operation
 Random samples that lasts at least one week
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Summary
• For both the foodservice operator and the
environment, real savings may be
obtained from better control of energy
use.
• The deterioration of the global
environment, which supports life, is
accelerating.
 Using less does not mean a resulting decline in
the quality of life and may result in the
creation of jobs.
Foodservice Management, Thirteenth Edition
June Payne-Palacio | Monica Theis
Copyright © 2016, 2012,2009
by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Foodservice Management
Principles and Practices
This page intentionally left blank
THIRTEENTH EDITION
Foodservice Management
Principles and Practices
JUNE PAYNE-PALACIO
Pepperdine University
MONICA THEIS
University of Wisconsin–Madison
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Payne-Palacio, June.
[Introduction to foodservice]
Foodservice management : principles and practices / June Payne-Palacio, Monica Theis.—Thirteenth edition.
pages cm
Earlier edition published as: Introduction to foodservice / June Payne-Palacio, Monica Theis, which was based
on an earlier work published in 1938: Foodservice in institutions / Bessie B. West and LeVelle Wood.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-13-376275-4 (alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-13-376275-0 (alk. paper)
1. Food service management. I. Theis, Monica. II. Title. III. Title: Food service management.
TX911.3.M27P39 2015
647.95068—dc23
2014044462
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ISBN 10:
0-13-376275-0
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-376275-4
Brief Contents
Part 1 The Foundations
1
Chapter 1 The Foodservice Industry   3
Chapter 2 The Systems Approach   33
Part 2 The Fundamentals
57
Chapter 3 Food Safety   59
Chapter 4 Facility Sanitation and Safety   93
Chapter 5 The Menu  117
Part 3 The Operational Functions
149
Chapter 6 Purchasing  151
Chapter 7 Receiving, Storage, and Inventory  184
Chapter 8 Production  200
Chapter 9 Service  226
Part 4 The Facilities
247
Chapter 10 Facilities Planning and Design  249
Chapter 11 Equipment and Furnishings  287
Chapter 12 Resource Conservation  311
Part 5 The Management Functions
329
Chapter 13 Organizational Design  331
Chapter 14 Leadership  355
Chapter 15 Human Resource Management  379
Chapter 16 Performance Improvement  409
Chapter 17 Financial Management  435
Chapter 18 Marketing  465
Appendix A Principles of Basic Cooking  481
Appendix B Foodservice Equipment  489
Index  511
v
This page intentionally left blank
Contents
Preface xiii
Part 1 The Foundations
1
CHAPTER 1 The Foodservice Industry 3
The History of Foodservice   7
A Foodservice Industry Timeline 5th Century  
Summary  30
CHAPTER 2 The Systems Approach 33
Status of Foodservice Today   35
Factors Affecting Growth  35
Trends in Foodservice   36
Challenges Facing the Industry   39
Classification of Foodservices   40
Foodservice Operations  42
The Nature of Foodservice Management  
The Systems Concept and Approach   42
Types of Foodservice Systems   47
Summary  52
Part 2 The Fundamentals
57
CHAPTER 3 Food Safety 59
Foodborne Illness 61
Scope of the Problem: Incidence of Foodborne Illness • Costs Associated
with Outbreaks of Foodborne Illness  
The Role of the Food Manager   63
Causes of Foodborne Illness   63
Hazards Inherent to Food: Forms of Food Contamination • Foodborne Illness
and Applied Microbiology • Chemical and Physical Contaminants  
Food Allergens a Contaminant of Growing Concern   67
A Systems Approach to Food Safety   68
Controls and Food Safety  
Food Safety: an Integrated Program of Haccp and Prerequisite Programs   69
Prerequisite Programs: The Foundation of an Integrated Food Safety Program •
Prerequisite Programs and Standard Operating Procedures  
Employee Health and Personal Hygiene   70
Proper Attire • Personal Hygiene Habits  
Flow of Food Through the Foodservice Operation   73
Proper Food Handling • Potential Hazards in Food Production  
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point   79
vii
viii
Contents
Managing an Integrated Food Safety Program   84
Enforcement: The Regulatory Inspection   85
Food Security Preventing and Managing Disasters  
Summary  90
CHAPTER 4 Facility Sanitation and Safety 93
Cleaning and Sanitation   95
Principles of Cleaning • Principles of Sanitation • Methods of Cleaning
and Sanitizing Equipment and Work Surfaces  
Dishwashing  99
Manual Dishwashing • Dishes, Glassware, and Silverware  
Facilities Cleaning and Maintenance   103
Organization and Scheduling • Preventive Maintenance • Pest Control •
Checks and Inspections  
Worker Safety  107
Worker Safety • Safety Program • Customer Protection  
Summary  114
CHAPTER 5 The Menu 117
The Menu  118
The Systems Approach to Menu Planning and Maintenance   119
Types of Menus   119
Meal Plans and Menu Patterns • Inspiration  
The Menu Planning Process   127
Organizational Mission and Goals • The Customer • Budget Guidelines •
Production and Service Capabilities  
Menu Development  137
Timetable for Planning, Development, and Implementation • Steps in Menu
Development • Food Characteristics and Combinations •
Menu Evaluation • Writing Menus for Modified Diets  
The Posted Menu   145
Menu Design and Format  
Summary  146
Part 3 The Operational Functions
149
CHAPTER 6 Purchasing 151
What Is Purchasing?   153
The Market  154
Market Distribution • Understanding the Market • Market Regulation:
U.S. Food and Inspection Programs  
The Buyer  158
The Art of Negotiation • Ethics in Purchasing • Structure of Purchasing  
Vendors and Food Distributors   161
Contents
Methods of Purchasing � …
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