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******* please respond to the discussion below add citation and references 🙂 ******The purpose of epidemiological data is to examine the occurrence and distribution of health-related trends in specified populations, including the study of the determinants influencing these trends. Purpose of epidemiology is to describe, explain, predict, and control challenges topopulation health. A population-based approach is essential if we are to fully understand the frequency of symptoms and illnesses occurring in society, and how people respond to them. Epidemiological studies that examine the occurrence of, or risk factors associated with, a disease in selected groups, such as hospital-based cohorts, provide useful information about the prevention or management of disease in the same populations but may provide misleading information about its management in the general population where the incidence and prevalence are often lower. The data and relationships identified through epidemiological study may be used in various ways. Descriptive epidemiological methods enable health professionals to identify the actual and potential health problems in a population. The burden of health outcomes or associated risk factors can be quantified, related to existing health services, and tracked to predict changes over time. An overview of the health issues affecting a population, and more importantly the relative distribution of these outcomes, enable priorities to be set and programmed to be planned. Once a risk factor has been identified through analytical studies, health promotion activities may be developed to reduce exposure to the outcome at the individual level. For example, encouraging smokers to stop smoking through education and support programs or population level such as banning smoking in public places. Epidemiology has moved from concentrating only on illness to examining how host, agent, and environment are involved in wellness at various levels. In response to an escalating need for improved methods of health planning and health policy analysis, epidemiology has developed more holistic models of health. The data must include general political, social, and environmental conditions, and a set of social determinants of health, including work, education, culture, social cohesion, and individual behavior, as well as biological factors like age, sex, and genetics.Reference:Gulis, G., & Fujino, Y. (2015). Epidemiology, population health, and health impact assessment. Journal of epidemiology, 25(3), 179–180. doi:10.2188/jea.JE20140212.……

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