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Question 1- NO FORMAT Necessary – 100 word minimum and cite source if used (would like to have this 1st one ASAP if possible)Identify similarities and differences between action research and traditional research. Explain why businesses might choose to implement an action research approach rather than a traditional research approach to solving problems. Support your ideas with a relevant business example. Question 2 & 3 Deal with my Action Research Paper- The problem I am trying to address is consistency with teachers enforcing rules at the high school where I work. I am attaching my response to the original question so you will have an idea of where I was trying to go. Please feel free to make suggestions or edit it to make it meet requirements or to make sense!This was the original question & under that is my response- PLEASE ASK ME IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONSDescribe a problem you are considering for your action research project, and discuss the following:Explain your motivation for addressing this problem in terms of why it is significant to the organization.Explain how addressing the problem could produce positive results for the business, its employees, and customers.Identify two ethical issues that could be connected to resolving the problem, and explain how you would address each issue as part of the problem-solving process.My response to help guide you with question 2 & 3The problem I am considering for my action research is consistency with the implementation and the follow through of rules/procedures in my high school. I am one that likes to do my job which includes making sure the rules are followed by everyone. The students I have must adhere to them or they receive the mandated consequence. The problem I have is that not all teachers do this and therefore I get to be the “mean teacher.” I try to explain to the students that high school is their “job” and even though they may not agree with everything they have to follow the rules. I always try to provide an example: When they are late, they receive a tardy- If I am late, I will have to answer to my principal. They have a dress code, I cannot show up to school in my Nike shorts, even though they are comfortable and have direct impact on my teaching. If this problem was addressed and all teachers did their job, I feel most of the issues would go away because the students would know that there will be a consequence for their choices. An ethical issue would be the dress code. I feel this is a problem when there is a guy coach and a female student. The coach does not want to address it for fear of retaliation of the student saying the coach was being inappropriate or unprofessional so therefore he does not address it. Another ethical issue is drug testing. The school close to us, but not in our district drug tests every student that drives to campus. Sports are the only organizations that drug test at my school at their decision. I sponsor the cheer team and we have done it twice. Question 2- The Handout & Rubric is attached The purpose of this assignment is to use an affinity diagram to brainstorm and identify root causes of the organizational problem and potential solutions for addressing it. Now that you have identified the basic problem you want to resolve within your organization, you will need to think about root causes for the problem. Read the Topic Materials and the “Brainstorming With an Affinity Diagram” handout to help you narrow and specify the cause(s) for the problem. Complete the affinity diagram action steps outlined on the “Brainstorming With an Affinity Diagram” handout, including the “Five Whys Root Causes Analysis.” This can be done using online mind mapping resources like those found in the Topic Materials, by using post-it notes, or through the use of Excel or Word documents and tables. When constructing the affinity diagram, be sure to complete all six steps described on the handout. You will reference these root causes APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are not required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Question 3: Handout is below and Rubric will be attached. The purpose of this assignment is to identify an organizational problem to solve within your current workplace or industry and construct a problem statement that can be used as the basis for an action research project. For this assignment, the first step is to identify an organizational problem to solve within your current workplace or industry. This is an opportunity for you to apply your learning while addressing a real-world problem. Part of completing an action research project is clearly identifying and stating the organizational problem that needs to be resolved through the use of a problem statement. The problem statement must clearly articulate the single goal of the action research project. Use what you have learned in the Topic Materials to construct a problem statement for your action research project. Read and complete the “Writing a Problem Statement” handout to construct your problem statement. Submit the completed handout to your instructor. Your problem statement will eventually become part of your final business proposal that will be submitted in Topic 8. APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are not required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Writing a Problem Statement Handout When writing a problem statement, it is important to clearly identify and state the organizational problem that needs to be resolved. To articulate this information clearly, the following pieces can be used as building blocks for the statement. Original problem or focus question Restate the initial problem that launched the inquiry process, or rewrite the focus question or one of the clarifying questions as a statement. Stakeholders who are most affected by the problem Identify who is most directly impacted by this problem. Alternately, who would benefit the most if this problem were resolved? Type of problem For example, is the problem based upon skills, attitudes, knowledge, resources, competition, defects, or something else? Suspected cause(s) of the problem Based on the data analysis or the root cause analysis, what does the team think is the most significant cause or causes contributing to this problem? What, if addressed, would make the greatest impact on resolving the problem? Include specific evidence. Goal for improvement and long-term impact Describe the target for impact. The goal should be measurable. Impact to stakeholders Describe possible impacts to stakeholders if the problem is not addressed. Proposal for addressing the problem The proposal is a high-level strategy that represents promising practices drawn from research, local knowledge, and local expertise. Note sources, if possible, when presenting this information. This proposal will become the basis for subsequent action planning. Final problem statement Tie the above statements into three to five coherent sentences that could be easily understood by a wide range of stakeholders. Sample Writing a Problem Statement Worksheet Original problem or focus question Call center representatives are not meeting quality standards.External customers and call center representativesLoss of customers and revenueLower performance evaluations for representativesHigher call center attritionPotential missed service level agreements (fines)Skills and Resources: Without the appropriate skills training and tools to perform the job, the call center representatives are not prepared to succeed in their positions.Call center representatives do not receive adequate training.There are insufficient online resources for representatives to refer to in production.There are insufficient management resources for coaching and mentoring representatives.The call center will achieve a 99.8% quality rating with no more than 2% of the staff on quality action plans.Increase training time to meet industry standards.Provide relevant, updated online tools for call center representatives.Many call center representatives are not achieving quality standards, thereby contributing to the overall low quality rating (92%) for the call center. Through data and process evaluation, it was determined that the training time for call center representatives is 30% less than other similar call centers, which may contribute to lack of skills training. In addition, the online tools available to the call center representatives are not updated frequently with procedural changes and do not contain all required information necessary for representatives to perform their job. The low quality over the past 6 months has resulted in a 2% decrease in customers and a $550,000 loss in annual revenue. Decreased employee satisfaction in the call center due to the issue has contributed to a 5% increase in voluntary attrition, which costs the business $80,000 annually. There is an opportunity to improve quality and reduce both customer and employee attrition by addressing the skills training and resource issue in the call center. Stakeholders who are most affected by the problem Impact to stakeholders Type of problem Suspected cause(s) of the problem Goal for improvement and long-term impact Proposal for addressing the problem Final problem statement
psc_495_rs_brainstorming_with_an_affinity_diagram.docx

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Brainstorming With an Affinity Diagram
An affinity diagram is a visual tool that organizes ideas by themes and is often used in
brainstorming sessions to determine both root causes and potential solutions for a problem. This
tool is most effective for face-to-face meetings; however, with the advancement of technology
and shared desktop spaces, this method could be adapted for virtual teams. Participants in the
process should include individuals from all stakeholder groups associated with the problem.
1. Introduce the problem or issue to participants. Normally, the facilitator has identified the
problem or issue prior to the meeting. The process of introducing the problem and
explaining how it is defined in the context of the project increases understanding of the
participants and produces ideas that are aligned with the problem.
Example Problem/Issue: Voluntary attrition in the call center is 60%.
2. Proceed by brainstorming causes for the problem. Participants should use a separate
sticky note to identify each item they believe is a cause of the problem (see example
below). “Why” questions are often very beneficial when thinking about the problem.
Example “Why” Question: Why are call center employees voluntarily leaving the
company at such a high rate?
Lack of
employee
training
No leader
training
Lack of
performance
standards
Lack of
performance
feedback
Lack of
procedural
support tools
Lack of
career path
Low
compensation
Lack of
training
Systems
hard to use
Systems are
frequently
down
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3. Sort ideas into themes based upon commonalities (see example below).
Compensation
and Benefits
Employee
Training and
Tools
Systems
Leadership
Progression
Lack of career
path
Low
compensation
Lack of
employee
training
System hard to
use
No leader
training
Benefits too
costly
Lack of
procedural
support
System
frequently
down
Lack of
performance
feedback
Lack of
performance
standards
4. Establish connections. As a team, discuss the categories and examine how they could
potentially link together.
Example Connection: In this case, the “Leadership” theme had the most items. This
item could be potentially aligned with the “Progression” theme since employees do not
believe they are receiving feedback or have a clear career path.
5. Establish the root cause of the problem. Look at the established themes and ask “why”
questions until the real root cause of the issue is identified (see example below). At this
stage of the process, many people prefer the use of different colored sticky notes for the
root causes that align to the ideas that have been brainstormed.
Example: Five Whys Root Cause Analysis:
Defined Problem: Voluntary attrition in the call center is 60%.
Why are call center employees voluntarily leaving the company at such a high rate?

Employees feel there is a lack of leadership.
Why is that?

Employees do not know the performance standards.
Why is that?

Employees do not receive feedback about their performance.
2
Why is that?

Managers have not been trained in providing performance feedback.
Why is that?

There is no manager training program.
Why is that?

Most managers are promoted from the call center floor to fill immediate
vacancies, so there is no time for training.
6. Validate the root causes (or causes) of the problem. Validation of root causes requires
reviewing reporting or survey results. The validation phase separates the “noise” from
real root causes of the problem. Noise is considered any item of low impact and low
volume; however, it may be a recent event that individuals considered when
brainstorming, like system downtime.
3
Course Code
PSC-495
Class Code
PSC-495-O101
Criteria
Content
Percentage
100.0%
Affinity Diagram
50.0%
Five Whys Root Causes Analysis
50.0%
Total Weightage
100%
Assignment Title
Affinity Diagram and Root Cause Analysis
Unsatisfactory (0.00%)
Affinity diagram illustrating the problem, potential causes,
and connections is not included.
Five whys root causes analysis is not included.
Total Points
35.0
Less than Satisfactory (65.00%)
Affinity diagram illustrating the problem, potential causes,
and connections is incomplete or incorrect.
Five whys root causes analysis is incomplete or incorrect.
Satisfactory (75.00%)
Affinity diagram illustrating the problem, potential causes,
and connections is partially complete and correct.
Five whys root causes analysis is partially complete and
correct.
Good (85.00%)
Affinity diagram illustrating the problem, potential causes,
and connections is mostly complete and correct.
Five whys root causes analysis is mostly complete and
correct.
Excellent (100.00%)
Affinity diagram illustrating the problem, potential causes,
and connections is complete and correct.
Five whys root causes analysis is complete and correct.
Comments
Points Earned

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