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Provide an understanding of how bureaucracy operates within a government. Specifically provide a definition of bureaucracy, how it operates, and provide the need for it as well as problems associated with it. No outside source, only what is attached. Must only be one page double spaced, size 12 times new roman. Must include page number next to examples. Be presice, not broad.
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CHAPTE R 8
Govern111cnts and
bureaucracies
Wolfga ng C. Mui/er
Reader ‘s guide
Chapter contents
In trod uct (‘n
13 7
Types or go c~rner.:
The nte na
~O
k
ng c ‘ go e ·nri e nt
The autonom ; of governm e ‘l t
The po l, t :cal capa c ty o f go vern me n t
Bure aucrat ic
Co nclusion
13 7
capacities
139
141
143
148
153
~
.
f
t r looks at decision -makin g rnades f
Th is c 1ap e
. .
o ~
d their ca pac1t1es to govern . Special ., ……
rnents an
.
.
“”’ 1::Fltl(,.
.
t
the
re
lat
io
nship
between the political a d
owen o
n ad
0
t · e pa rts of oovernment.
The chapter Lg.,
I!’ ,
O
,s tra ,v




ue ns b .
•n o defin iti o ns and d1stmgu1shing what c
L.
d ress1 0
.
.
onstit_,.
govern m ent u nder different regimes . The chapter p~
d iffere nt m odes of government that reflect the inteniai,’
a nce of power: pres ident ial, ca~inet, prime ministenat;
ministerial government. Then 1t addresses the atrtOllt~·
of government, in particular from political parties ano:-,
permanent bureaucracy. Next, the chapte r discusses ~,
political capacity of governments , the relevance of un:i
vs divided government, majority vs minority govem!TI{and single-party vs coalition government. Finally, thee!-.-:
ter highlights the bureauc ratic capacities of govemn-!’.
addressing issues such as classic bureaucracy, the poit.’t
zation of bureaucracies , and the New Public Manag,enr
CHAPTER 8
111trO
duction
GOVERNM ENTS AND BUREAUCRAC IES
137
parts of th e executive a lso d e p e nds on th e ar,,,’) ,’. •. r;-~•rnc tin,,~-· t 1· ,..- c,-:- •’.,
s p ective a nd jud gem e nt. A t th e ~a •
ec uti ve fo c u s e rn ph as izf’S coorc11·:dll0rt .;.n:.: r., tr:t”Jt-)i
rath e r than hi erarchical relauon~ 8r,,,,,F 1.’~e L•—,,•-; •i ~·
. n c nt ‘ has se veral
meanings. . 1n t h e
‘ g.oVCI Ill
.
·th•· ,.-.-111
. ·t ,·efcrs. to a . hier a .r c hi cal struct ur e .,n
•~l s~n~c 1
i,,-,,.,cl< · . ., . tting , 1nclud1ng private clubs bu . cons titute th e core executi.,,t. tl h•!r-L2c r-1.-d -'·;i_;n!~::>….!’:’
. ., 111 zcl1 sc
. _
.
.
. . .

s1ness
y ,>1 f’.·
.ti c,1 inst1tut1ons . W1th1n politics ab
d
1995; Smith 1 999 ) . Thi <; p en,p, >-> :-.
_
era 1,
b~ tc
· ,11,c11 o cal government . • nat general
und e r sta n d.1ng
European U ni o n (E U) (Le v i – F aur
.
1
~ ”

_
e nt in c ludes the executive , l egislative , and -)U fgovetnn,
o _ . I bran c hes . Most co1n1non , ho-w evc r , is to refer t o a
KEY POINTS
ct,cw . , cen tra l political exec utive as ‘ the governme t ‘
countiys
.
n .
• he term ‘government ‘ has seve r a rrca,…,_ -,gs The
and this is how this tenn w,11 be u sed in this c h apter.’
mo s t common refers to the count ry ‘ s central L’Ol: t cal
‘The job of the goven–.1nent 1s to govern the country.
executi ve .
Governing m ea ns ruling . It is n ot , as th e t e rm ·execu tive ‘ might suggest , just in,ple1n e ntin g l aws passe d by

Govern i ng means ru ling. exerc is i ng overal control over
the legislature . Rather, governing 1n ea ns the gove rnn, e nt
a country , and determining the course it will ta k e .
h av ing a st1·ong imprint o n the l a-ws passe d during its
reign a nd 1nore generally exe r c i s in g overall control over
a country and detennining it s dir ection . As v..•e s hall see ,
governn,ents are not a lw ays ab l e to live up to ver y strong
exp ectations about th e i1· ab ility to do1ninate political
Government and the separation
d ecision – making . Yet , even ·w ea k gove rn,nents tend to
of powers
be the political systen,’s n1 ost in,po rlant s ingle political
acto r. This is a n,ajor r easc,P w’-.v i ndividu a l s and political
Today ‘s governments emerged through the piecemeal
parties 1nostly want t o b e ,i·, gove rnn,e nt . And because
splitting- off of state functions from a traditiona\y un government is so im po rt ….. r-t r•0·,tt 1ons in the central po divided central government (usua\y a monarch) (K ing
litical executive t end t o <.<, .,. ,th. otb e r goo d s that make 1975; Finer 1997 ) . ln order to limit the government's then, even mor e atti·a c t t·.· .· ctal prestige , decent in pow e r , judicial functions were transferred to courts and come , public reco gn ili0;. " ·.. '. ,_.. 1v 1.ege d access to other legislative functions to parliaments . This process began powerful and / or f arn'--''J . , ·,y,.· ·the cba n ce to govern in twelfth - and thirteenth- century England . lt had many the count1·y and t o e n Ju-' • ·-,.~ ';)nv il e ges is m ea nt to mo national variations and , in Europe , was not completed b efo r e th e twentieth century. The co nstitutional doctrine tivate the best p eop l.e t •, ,_-.Jcnpet e for gove rnment office . of the separation of powers-as developed hrst and fore In dernocra c ie s , su ch cc,n,p•..: titio n for gover nment office most by the political philosophers Locke , Montesquieu , is ulti1natey ti e d t o elect!,)n:c, E ith e r the government is and Madison-provides a normative justihcation for the dir ectly e l ected or it is respo nsib l e to a parliament tbat separation of institutions (Vile 1967 ; see also Chapters r es ults from g e n e r a e l ectio ns . 1 Types of government 7 and 9) . A few m e n a nd (increas in g ly also) won,en , distin ln practice , state functions we1·e never as neatly sepaguished a nd ca r e full y se l ecte d a s they may b e , cannot run rated as envisaged by political philosophers . The exa co untr y. Th e refor e gove rn1n e nts have bureaucracies to ecutive has retained in"1portant legislative functions , in support th em in th e ir tasks of ruling and adn1 inistrating particular drafting legislation and issuing governn,e_nt the country. Thus , in functional terms , governing is n _ot decrees and ordinances (Ca1·ey and Shugart 1998) . "-'Vlt_h th e excl u sive task of the governrnent . This has given nse political parties establishing then,seves as the rnan to the notion of the core exec utive , which comprises ' all h . to structure elections and to coordlnate . . n,ec an1sm t · s have gained an an,ost d e fa c t o t h ose organ1zat1ons and proce d ures w hich coordinate . irnbents execu we . . d t . the final arbiters inc; .' aw rnaking in parlian1.entary systen"'s . ce ntr a l governrnent poli c i es , an ac as n,onopo Y in . . . ".Ot true to the s,une exof co nflict between different parts of the government .d t·1a systen,s t "' 15 S 1 ln pres1 en . ., ·u-ge in\ue ncc on . " . that it is d1fmachine ' (Rhodes 1995: 12) . This imp ies

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