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Pls read chapter 4 & 5, and then answer the questions. The follow documents are questions and template.
chapter_4_notes___daft_7th_ed..pdf

chapter_5_notes___daft_7th_ed..pdf

leadership_reflection_questions_template__.docx

leadership_reflection_questions_week_2_chapters_4_5.docx

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CHAPTER 4
The Leader as
an Individual
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Learning Objectives (slide 1 of 3)
• Understand the importance of self-awareness
and recognize your blind spots
• Identify major personality dimensions and
understand how personality influences
leadership and relationships within
organizations
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Learning Objectives (slide 2 of 3)
• Clarify your instrumental and end values and
recognize how values guide thoughts and
behavior
• Define attitudes and explain their relationship to
leader behavior
• Explain attributions and recognize how
perception affects the leader–follower
relationship
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Learning Objectives (slide 3 of 3)
• Recognize individual differences in cognitive
style and broaden your own thinking style to
expand leadership potential
• Understand how to lead and work with people
with varied personality traits
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Self-Awareness
Being conscious of the
internal aspects of one’s
nature, such as personality
traits, emotions, values,
attitudes, and perceptions,
and appreciating how your
patterns affect other people
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Blind Spots
Characteristics or habits that
people are not aware of or don’t
recognize as problems but
which limit their effectiveness
and hinder their career success
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Importance of Self-Awareness
• Effective leaders know who they are and what
they stand for
– Allow people to know what to expect from them
• People require self-reflection to avoid blind
spots that limit effectiveness and career
success
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Personality
The set of unseen
characteristics and processes
that underlie a relatively
stable pattern of behavior in
response to ideas, objects,
and people in the
environment
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Big Five Personality Dimensions (slide 1 of 6)
Five general dimensions that
describe personality:
extroversion, agreeableness,
conscientiousness, emotional
stability, and openness to
experience
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Big Five Personality Dimensions (slide 2 of 6)
• Extroversion: Degree to which a person is
outgoing, sociable, talkative, and comfortable
meeting and talking to new people
– Includes the characteristic of dominance
• Likes to be in control and influence others
• Self-confident, seeks positions of authority, and is
competitive and assertive
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Big Five Personality Dimensions (slide 3 of 6)
• Agreeableness: Degree to which a person is
able to get along with others by being goodnatured, cooperative, forgiving, compassionate,
understanding, and trusting
– Warm and approachable
– More agreeable people are more likely to get
and keep jobs
– Overly agreeable people tend to be promoted
less and earn less money
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Big Five Personality Dimensions (slide 4 of 6)
• Conscientiousness: Degree to which a person
is responsible, dependable, persistent, and
achievement-oriented
– Focus on a few goals
– More important than extroversion for effective
leadership
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Big Five Personality Dimensions (slide 5 of 6)
• Emotional stability: Degree to which a person
is well-adjusted, calm, and secure
– Emotionally stable leader can:
• Handle stress and criticism well and does not take
mistakes or failures personally
• Develop positive relationships
• Improve relationships
– Leaders with a low degree of emotional stability
can become tense, anxious, or depressed
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Big Five Personality Dimensions (slide 6 of 6)
• Openness to experience: Degree to which a
person has a broad range of interests and is
imaginative, creative, and willing to consider
new ideas
– Intellectually curious and seeks new
experiences
– Early travel and exposure to different ideas and
culture are critical to development
– Important because leadership is about change
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Locus of Control (slide 1 of 2)
Defines whether a person
places the primary
responsibility for what happens
to him or her within
himself/herself or on outside
forces
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Locus of Control (slide 2 of 2)
• High internal locus of control (internals)—Belief
that actions determine what happens to them
• High external locus of control (externals)—
Belief that outside forces determine what
happens to them
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 4.1 – Maximizing Leadership
Effectiveness
Sources: Based on Patricia Wallington, ‘‘The Ins and Outs of Personality,’’ CIO (January 15, 2003), pp. 42, 44; ‘‘From the Front Lines: Leadership
Strategies for Introverts,’’ Leader to Leader (Fall 2009), pp. 59–60; Joann S. Lublin, ‘‘Introverted Execs Find Ways to Shine,’’ The Wall Street Journal
Asia (April 18, 2011), p. 31; and Ginka Toegel and Jean-Louis Barsoux, ‘‘How to Become a Better Leader,’’ MIT Sloan Management Review (Spring
2012), pp. 51–60.
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Authoritarianism (slide 1 of 2)
The belief that power and
status differences should exist
in an organization
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Authoritarianism (slide 2 of 2)
• Leader’s degree of authoritarianism affects how
the leader wields and shares power
• High authoritarianism
– Traditional and rational approach to
management
– Autocratic style of leadership
– Difference between leader and follower affects
leader’s effectiveness
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Values
Fundamental beliefs that an
individual considers to be
important, that are relatively
stable over time, and that have
an impact on attitudes and
behavior
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Instrumental and End Values
Instrumental values
• Beliefs about the types of behavior that are
appropriate for reaching goals
End values
• Sometimes called terminal values, these are
beliefs about the kind of goals or outcomes that
are worth trying to pursue
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Values – Differences and Influence
• Individuals differ in how they prioritize values
• Identify and understand value differences to
improve communication and effectiveness
• Values are established by early adulthood but
can change
• For leaders, values influence how they:
– Relate to others
– Perceive opportunities, situations, and problems
– Make decisions
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 4.2 – Differences in Leaders’
and Nonleaders’ Value Rankings
Source: Based on Table 2, Differences in Managers’ versus Non-Managers’ Terminal and Instrumental Value Ranking, in Edward F. Murphy Jr., Jane
Whitney Gibson, and Regina A. Greenwood, ‘‘Analyzing Generational Values among Managers and Non-Managers for Sustainable Organizational
Effectiveness,’’ SAM Advanced Management Journal (Winter 2010), pp. 33–55.
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Attitude
An evaluation (either positive
or negative) about people,
events, or things
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X
• Assumption that people are basically lazy and
not motivated to work and that they have a
natural tendency to avoid responsibility
Theory Y
• Assumption that people do not inherently
dislike work and will commit themselves
willingly to work that they care about
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 4.3 – Attitudes and Assumptions
of Theory X and Theory Y
Source: Based on Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960), pp. 33–48.
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Perception
The process people use to
make sense out of the
environment by selecting,
organizing, and interpreting
information
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Perceptual Distortions (slide 1 of 2)
Perceptual defense
• Errors in judgment that arise from inaccuracies in
the perceptual process
Stereotyping
• Tendency to assign an individual to a broad
category and then attribute generalizations about
the group to the individual
Halo effect
• Overall impression of a person or situation based on
one characteristic, either favorable or unfavorable
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Perceptual Distortions (slide 2 of 2)
Projection
• Tendency to see one’s own personal traits in
other people
Perceptual defense
• Tendency to protect oneself by disregarding
ideas, situations, or people that are unpleasant
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Attributions (slide 1 of 2)
Judgments about what caused
a person’s behavior—either
characteristics of the person or
of the situation
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Attributions (slide 2 of 2)
• Internal attribution—Characteristics of the
person led to the behavior
• External attribution—Situation caused the
person’s behavior
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to underestimate
the influence of external factors
on another’s behavior and
overestimate the influence of
internal factors
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Self-Serving Bias
The tendency to overestimate
the influence of internal factors
on one’s successes and the
influence of external factors on
one’s failures
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Cognitive Style
How a person perceives,
processes, interprets, and uses
information
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Patterns of Thinking
• Left hemisphere—Logical, analytical thinking
and a linear approach to problem solving
• Right hemisphere—Creative, intuitive, valuesbased thought processes
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Whole Brain Concept
An approach that considers not
only a person’s preference for
right-brained versus leftbrained thinking, but also
conceptual versus experiential
thinking; identifies four
quadrants of the brain related
to different thinking styles
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 4.4 – Hermann’s Whole Brain
Model
Source: Ned Herrmann, The Whole Brain Business Book (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996) p. 15.
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
(MBTI)™ (slide 1 of 2)
Test that measures how
individuals differ in gathering
and evaluating information
for solving problems and
making decisions
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
(MBTI)™ (slide 2 of 2)
• Uses different pairs of attributes to classify
people in 1 of 16 different personality types
– Introversion versus extroversion
– Sensing versus intuition
– Thinking versus feeling
– Judging versus perceiving
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Guidelines for Working with Different
Personality Types
• Understand your own personality and how you
react to others
• Treat everyone with respect
• Acknowledge each person’s strengths
• Strive for understanding
• Remember that everyone wants to fit in
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
CHAPTER 5
Leadership
Mind and
Emotion
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Learning Objectives (slide 1 of 2)
• Recognize how mental models guide your
behavior and relationships
• Engage in independent thinking by staying
mentally alert, thinking critically, and being
mindful rather than mindless
• Break out of categorized thinking patterns and
open your mind to new ideas and multiple
perspectives
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Learning Objectives (slide 2 of 2)
• Begin to apply systems thinking and personal
mastery to your activities at school or work
• Exercise emotional intelligence, including being
self-aware, managing your emotions, motivating
yourself, displaying empathy, and managing
relationships
• Apply the difference between motivating others
based on fear and motivating others based on
love
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Leading with Head and Heart
• Whole leaders use both head and heart
– Use their heads for organizational issues
– Use their hearts for human issues
• Current issues
– How to give people a sense of meaning and
purpose
– How to make employees feel valued and
respected
– How to keep morale and motivation high
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Mental Models
Theories people hold about
specific systems in the
world and their expected
behavior
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 5.1 – Elements of a System
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Systems and Mental Models
• A system is any set of elements that interact to
form a whole and produce a specified outcome
• A mental model helps leaders attain the desired
outcome by arranging the key elements in the
systems
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 5.2 – Google Leaders’ Mental
Model
Source: Based on Adam Lashinsky, ‘‘Chaos by Design,’’ Fortune (October 2, 2006), pp. 86–98.
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Assumptions
• Assumptions are part of a leader’s mental
model about events, situations, circumstances,
and people
• Assumptions are dangerous if they are
accepted as truth
• Questioning assumptions can help leaders
understand and shift their mental models
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Changing or Expanding Mental
Models
• Leader’s mindset is key in organization’s
success
– Greatest factor in success of leaders and
organizations is the ability to change or expand
one’s mental model
– Organization is vulnerable if the leader’s mental
model is obsolete
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Global Mindset
The ability of managers to
appreciate and influence
individuals, groups,
organizations, and systems
that represent different social,
cultural, political, institutional,
intellectual, or psychological
characteristics
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Developing a Leader’s Mind
Independent
Thinking
OpenMindedness
Systems
Thinking
Personnel
Mastery
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Independent Thinking (slide 1 of 2)
Independent thinking
• Questioning assumptions and interpreting data
and events according to one’s own beliefs, ideas,
and thinking, rather than preestablished rules or
categories defined by others
Mindfulness
• State of focused attention on the present moment
and a readiness to create new mental categories
in the face of evolving information and shifting
circumstances
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Independent Thinking (slide 2 of 2)
Mindlessness
• Questioning assumptions and interpreting data
and events according to one’s own beliefs,
ideas, and thinking, rather than preestablished
rules or categories defined by others
Intellectual stimulation
• Arousing followers’ thoughts and imaginations as
well as stimulating their abilit …
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