1. Identify two ideas from each of the following that demonstrate your thoughts and/or what you’ve learned, appreciated, or have questions about. Qualifiers and ConcessionsParallel ConstructionMLA In-Text Citations https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9-zoWzeRAuo2. Identify something you feel confident about for Sunday’s draft and two skills you plan to focus on. Include any questions you have.
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Parallel structure (also called parallelism) is the repetition of a chosen
grammatical form within a sentence. For example:
The scholar reads, determines, and argues that global warming is problematic.
The scholar proceeds to read, to determine, and to argue that global warming
Through reading, analyzing, and arguing the scholar concludes that global
warming is problematic.
When each item or idea in sentence follows the same grammatical pattern,
parallel construction is achieved.
Throughout this handout I’ve underlined parallel word pairs or sets, so you’ll see
how common they are and how they work.
Parallelism helps to create sentences that are concise, by eliminating extra
words, and clear, by creating word patterns readers can follow easily. Parallelism
also creates the appropriate emphasis and rhythm in sentences.
When to Use
Parallelism is used when two or more items, like ideas, actions, people, places, or
things, are listed in a sentence.
TEST: Each parallel element should make sense if the others are removed.
A Test and
Original Example: The scholar reads, determines, and argues that global
warming is problematic.
Test: The scholar reads that global warming is problematic.
CLUE: Because commas are used when separating items in a list, the presence of
commas in a sentence offers a good clue that parallel construction is needed. In
the first example in this box, all items follow the same pattern because all are
With Lists: When items or descriptions are listed in a sentence, use parallel
The dictionary can be used to find word
meanings, pronunciations, accurately spell, and looking up irregular verbs.
the forms are not parallel.
Corrected for Parallelism:
The dictionary can be used to find word meanings, pronunciations, spellings,
and irregular verbs. all are plural nouns
Another Parallel Example
The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately,
and thoroughly. all are adverbs with -ly endings.
Adapted from Evergreen handout and Purdue OWL. For more practice, visit https://webapps.towson.edu/ows/moduleparallel.htm
With The FANBOYS: When two or more sentences (called “independent clauses”)
or phrases are connected with one of the “FANBOYS” (for, and, nor, but, or, yet,
or so), use parallel structure.
My best friend took me to a dance and to a show.
My best friend took me dancing and to a show. <- choose one form or the other Clauses: Sentences often contain groups of words that must be in parallel. When Used: Specific Instances (continued) Parallel: The coach told the players that they should get adequate sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game. Not Parallel: The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game. With Correlative Conjunctions: When two clauses or phrases are connected with a correlative conjunction (not only…but also, either…or, neither…nor, if…then, etc.), use parallel structure. Parallel: My dog not only likes to play fetch, but also likes to chase cars. Not Parallel: My dog not only likes to play fetch, but also chases cars. Watch For To Revise For Practice Missing Words: Sometimes parallelism is lost when words are missing. This can create confusion. Parallel: The writer does her best work in libraries that have shared tables or in public areas with couches. Not Parallel (Missing Word) The writer does her best work in libraries that have shared tables or public areas with couches. <- This suggests that the public places are in libraries. 1. Decide whether sentence elements are parallel. • Read your sentences aloud to see if they maintain a consistent rhythm. • Look for words and phrases with commas and joining words between them, like “and,” or “or,” for example. 2. If sentence elements are not parallel, revise them by using the suggestions, above. Revise the following sentences so that elements are parallel. 1. I would rather eat potatoes than to eat rice. 2. Global warming affects wildlife, is harmful to the environment, and always made people unsafe. 3. It's harder to do long division than dividing with a calculator. 4. Bruce Wayne enjoys donning his Batman costume, answers the Commissioner's phone calls, and likes to save Gotham City from cruel villains like the Penguin. Adapted from Evergreen handout and Purdue OWL. For more practice, visit https://webapps.towson.edu/ows/moduleparallel.htm MLA In-text Citation Cheat Sheet In-Text General Information What is an in-text citation? When do you use in-text citation? Why do you use in-text citation? • It links information in the body of your essay to your Works Cited list. • It offers enough information so that the reader can find the complete information in the Works Cited list. • It is written next to the information that has been taken from another source. • It is typically at the end of a sentence. However, if only part of the sentence pertains to the source information, it can come immediately after that (inside the sentence). • Whenever you use information from another source in your essay. • To lead your reader to the correct entry in your Works Cited list. • To avoid plagiarizing. In-Text Citation Examples Most of these examples use exact quotations from other sources. Exact quotations are placed in quotation marks. If you are paraphrasing or summarizing another author, the same rules apply for in-text citation, but you don’t use quotation marks around the source information. Whenever you are citing another author’s thoughts, you MUST cite it, whether you’re quoting exactly, paraphrasing, or summarizing. Otherwise, it is considered plagiarism. Books & Journal Articles with Author • (Author’s Last Name [space] Page Number). Research reveals that, “The use of water in the UAE has increased 15 percent since 1990” (Lee 34). Books & Journal Articles with Two Authors • (Last Name and Last.Name [space] Page Number). Research reveals that, “The use of water in the UAE has increased 15 percent since 1990” (Jones and Garcia 34). Books & Journal Articles with No Obvious Author Titles of large works like books, whole websites, and films are italicized. • (Title [space] Page Number). In current travel books, “Sharjah is promoted as the capital of the Arabian Gulf” (Emirates Guide 3). [Book] Titles of smaller works like journal articles and web pages are placed in “quotation marks” • (“Title” [space] Page Number). Website/page or Other Work with an Author, but No Page # • (Author’s Last Name, par. #). [paragraph #] • (Author’s Last Name, ch. #). [chapter #] Without more current research, “We’ll never know why so many students drop out of high school” (“Lacking Vital Information” 7). [Webpage or Article Title] As determined by an EPA environmental study, “fish are getting sick” (Vantri, par. 5). Website/page or Other Work with a Title but No Author Use the title in your in-text citation (could be the title of the webpage, website, e-book, etc.). If the title is long, shorten it to the 1-3 key words in the in-text citation. Remember, BIG THINGS: websites, books, movies, CDs, & TV series titles are italicized. SMALLER THINGS: Webpages (when part of a website), chapters, articles, poems, songs on CDs, and TV episode titles are placed in “quotation marks.” • (Title, par. #). • (“Title,” par. #). Citing Two Different Authors or Works in the Same Sentence Separate the citation information for each with a semicolon. • (Author #; Author #). Citing the Words of an Author Found in Another Text (Indirect Quote) State the name of the author whose words you want to use if not included in the signal phrase, then “qtd. in,” then the author of the source, then page number. (Last Name qtd. in Last Name Source #). Citing a Video or Audio Use the author’s name and note the time the citation occurs in the video or audio in the 00:00:00 (hours : minutes : seconds) format: • (Last Name 00:00:00). Citation Note: If you include the author’s name in your sentence, use only the page, paragraph, or chapter number in the parenthesis. Research shows that, “People have a happiness set-point” (Happiness, par. 13). [eBOOK] According to the founders, “a breeding center for endangered Arabian animals started functioning in February 1998” ("Sharjah Natural History,” par. 7). [WEBPAGE] Although some experts argue “science will be unable to solve the mystery of consciousness,” others argue we already have (Heraldez 17; Farah 120). The author argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" (Ravitch qtd. in Xun 259). OR Ravitch argues… that well” (qtd in Xun 259). “Stereotype threat distracts those who are stereotyped and creates anxiety, causing them to underperform” (Steele 01:14:32). Vang notes that the “period follows the closed parenthesis” (54). or (ch. 2). or (par. 16). ... Purchase answer to see full attachment