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1. I attached the prompt on the file plz follow the requirements2. Second file is about my own idea relate to this case study, this also is my first time checked in with my professor, her feedback was “i, I think you have a good topic in the CU, but as you say, the direction isn’t yet clear. In thinking about a question, and about how literacy could tie in, maybe consider how the CU helps students to become literate in school culture. How does it serve to introduce Chinese students to each other and to the cultures that develop on campus? What do students need to know to have a successful experience? How do the activities the group puts on influence the culture? If you need help with brainstorming on this, come to office hours.”3. so I need you to come up with a main question for this case study4. Since I am a international student, plz writes same level paper as this sample , the file 3 was the “A” Sample
composition_case_study.docx

brife_intro.docx

huang___case_study.docx

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Writing Project #2: Composition Case Study
Purpose
The Composition Case Study connects to the UWP1 learning outcome of using research to evaluate, analyze,
and synthesize prior knowledge on a subject and create new knowledge through primary research. The purpose
of the Composition Case Study Project is to conduct a case study of a composer by interviewing the composer
about his or her writing processes, rhetorically analyzing the composer’s work, and reflecting on what you
learned about composing from conducting the case study. The composer can be a fellow student, a workplace
professional, a family member, a local performer, etc. You’ll present the results of this research in the form of a
scholarly research article. In addition to interviewing the composer, you’ll integrate secondary sources—
research others have conducted. You’ll include the Composition Case Study Project in your final portfolio.
You’ll also give a brief presentation on your Composition Case Study Project for the final exam. You’ll give a
three-minute presentation that provides an overview of your case study findings using a visual aid (a poster, a
PowerPoint, a Prezi, etc.) and answer questions from the audience.
Genre
Case studies are a common genre in academic writing in every field, whether it’s a psychologist describing a
patient or a business report focused on a specific company or a primatologist studying a particular band of
gorillas. Scholarly case studies are most often published in print mode (articles in scholarly journals and books
published by scholarly presses), but scholarly case studies are also presented in digital form (in documentary
videos or websites in online journals). The tone and style of a scholarly article tends to be formal and serious,
with the use of academic language and jargon appropriate for the subject and discipline. Readers expect
scholarly articles to engage in conversation with the research that’s been done on the topic, and this means
citing and integrating peer reviewed academic sources from scholarly journals and books. Citing only a few
related research studies is never enough to show that you’ve deeply engaged with your topic as a scholar.
Although most research articles cite dozens of sources, since this is a small research project, you should cite at
least 4-6 sources. You are welcome to cite any of the scholarly articles we’ve read for class.
Audience and Circulation
The primary audience for your Literacy Case Study Project is the academic discourse community of UWP1
students and teachers. You’ll have at least one reader from an academic background (myself) since this research
project will be included in the final portfolio. You’ll also have the option of circulating your Composition Case
Study Project to a wider academic audience. You can submit it for consideration for the UWP student writing
journal, Readings about Writing. You also have the option of circulating your research project to a wider
audience online through a blog, website, YouTube video, etc.
Format
Research articles have different formats depending on the discipline (for example, research articles in the
sciences often use a more “objective” tone, less direct quotes, and more visuals like charts and graphs than
research articles in the humanities). But academic research articles in every field use some basic formatting
conventions: there’s often an abstract at the beginning that summarizes the article; there’s usually an
introduction and discussion of related research, a discussion of research methods, and a discussion of the results
and significance of the research. Different sections of a scholarly research article are usually divided by
headings. The length of a scholarly research article will depend on the size of the study and the assignment
guidelines (if it’s written for a college class) or the journal submission guidelines (if it’s written for publication
in a scholarly journal). You’ll be conducting a small research study, so your research article should be between
1,800 and 2,000 words. For non-print case studies like videos or websites, there will be fewer words but more
of the work will go into creating visuals, video editing, audio editing, etc. In the field of Writing Studies the
most commonly used citation style is the style of the American Psychological Association (APA), so we’ll use
APA style. APA highlights the year of the research you’re citing, and in Writing Studies we focus on the year
since older research may not be as relevant as current studies. If you decide you’d like to write a research article
to submit to the journal Young Scholars in Writing you should use MLA style, since that journal requires MLA
and not APA style.
Cover Memos
You’ll write two cover memos for this assignment: one with your peer response workshop draft, and one with
the revised draft we discuss in our one-on-one conference. The word counts for the process memos do not count
towards the project word count.
*The cover memo for the peer response workshop draft should be one paragraph describing what you think
the strengths and weaknesses of the draft are and one paragraph with any questions or concerns you have for
your peer responders. This should be at least 200 words.
*The cover memo for the one-on-one conference should be one paragraph describing what you think the
strengths and weaknesses of the draft are, one paragraph with any questions or concerns you have for me, and
one paragraph summarizing the feedback you got from your peer responders and what revisions you made
based on your peers’ response. This should be at least 400 words.
For this project I will be giving you a face-to-face response in a one-on-one conference rather than a written
response.
Criteria
See the UWP1 portfolio rubric.
Important Dates
May 6: Bring a print or digital copy of your Composition Case Study Project Proposal to class.
May 13: Upload a draft of your Composition Case Study Project to canvas before class and bring a print or
digital copy to class. Minimum 900 words.
May 20—22: Bring a print or digital copy of your revised Composition Case Study Project to your 20 minute
one-on-one conference with me. Minimum 1,200 words.
June 9: Include the final draft of your Literacy Case Study Project as part of your final portfolio. 1,800-2,000
words. Submit the portfolio to canvas by midnight.
June 13: Final exam three-minute oral presentation on your Composition Case Study Project followed by a Q
and A. Use a visual aid in the presentation (poster, PowerPoint, Prezi, etc.).
My Brief introduction (However I need you to come up with a main question)
My Case study is about the College student association, more specifically is about CU, the Chinese Union. CU is an
student organization that located in our university and every students in this organization are Chinese. And this
organization only published at our school for less than an year. During the past one year, they held many events on
the campus. They provided some useful resources through their wechat channel for students. And CU is an nonprofit student organization.
I have many questions for this organization. The first question is why there are so many students joined the CU.
What are the reasons that CU organization draw this many students’ interests. The second question is what is the
purpose they established the CU student organization. Third, how CU worked at campus I heard there are many
department in CU, thus I’m interested in how this organization operate at campus. Those are the main questions I
wanted to do in this research, however, I am still struggling with my thesis and develop a main question for this
research.
For this topic, I might do research about similar students organization. Since I have many friends who participate in
CU, I will ask them some questions about their organization. I currently at a early stage for this research, for my next
stage. I will develop a main research question that big enough to let me start my research.
Point, Prezi, etc.).
Recognize the Common Challenges of Research Design and The Available Solutions
Introduction
In a recent study, neuroscientists reported that the left hemisphere of the dog brain is
responsible for processing spoken words (Neuroskeptic, 2017). After the paper was published
in the journal Science, researchers revealed that they had mixed up the left and right
orientation in all of the dogs’ fMRI images. Researchers failed to notice that humans and
dogs display different body positions when interacting with MRI scanners, which resulted in
a left/right confusion. An error in research design is likely to cause serious problem like this.
After hypothesizing a theory and devising a testable research question, researchers formulate
a set of methods and procedures that would be used in collecting and analyzing data
(Morling, 2015). The essential purpose of a research design is to test a hypothesis (Gerring,
2011). By incorporating the set of methods and procedures for the hypothesis testing,
researchers create a framework to find answers for the research questions. Throughout the
process of developing research methods, researchers would more or less encounter some
difficulties that they need to overcome. Due to the enormous branches of the academic family
tree, research focused on oceanography might be distantly related to a study on political
science. However, researchers with different academic backgrounds generally face similar
types of challenges, which include the selection of specific types of research and the
consideration of trade-off issues. Likewise, researchers can resolve these issues by making
detailed plans in advance, reading and analyzing literature in the related fields, and seeking
assistance from other experienced researchers.
Background Information Regarding Research Design
In order to recognize the challenges that researchers face while doing research, various
research method used in different contexts have to be categorized and defined first. The most
commonly known and appreciated way to approach a research topic is by performing a welldesigned experiment. Scientists generally regard the analysis of data collected by experiments
as the most trustworthy first-hand information (Morling, 2015). That is because the
experimental research is completed in a controlled environment. By manipulating one or
more variables and measuring changes in other variables, experimental research can
determine a causal relation between the manipulated and the measured variables (Gerring,
2011). A causal relation means a change in A directly results in a change in B. The discovery
of causality would produce significant effects on the studied topic.
It’s worth noting that researchers don’t always have the intention or the capacity to perform
an experiment. If researchers are not looking for a causal relationship, or the cost of a strict
experimental setting is unbearable, a correlational research can be performed to determine if
the variables are correlated. A correlational study doesn’t manipulate variables. Hence, a
correlated relationship between two variables does not prove that one caused the other since
none of the variables has been manipulated (Siegle, 2015). However, correlational research
can still prove that two or more variables studied in the research are connected in some ways.
Correlational research design doesn’t require the same high standards as an experimental
research design would require.
In many other times, researchers are not trying to find any pattern among various variables.
Instead, they are interested in describing the characteristics of the population or phenomenon
(Bhat, 2018). This type of research is known as descriptive research, which primary focuses
on depicting the nature of a phenomenon without explaining why it happens. Survey
methods, naturalistic observations and case studies are three distinctive methods of
descriptive research.
A common difficulty of almost all research design is the selection of statistical methods.
Ultimately, researchers will have to provide evidence that their findings are statistically
significant. Robustness tests, t-statistics and model-fit statistics are all different statistical
tools that serve different functions (Gerring, 2011). In order to achieve a significant result,
researchers would have to figure out what kind of statistical method they would use for their
research projects on the stage of research design, so that the procedures of data collection
would not be in conflict with future data analysis.
Common Challenges of Research Design
One of the first issue that researchers have to address is what type of research method they
would choose to approach their research topics. Experimental research, of course, is the most
ideal research design. However, not all of the researchers have the available resources or the
suitable timing to perform a flawless experiment. Apart from these limitations, researchers
might think other research methods are more appropriate in response to their research
questions. In a political science paper, for instance, the researchers are trying to examine the
role of the Latino vote in the 2012 election (Wallace, 2012). At this point, the researchers
don’t want to establish a causal relation in this study because it would be nearly impossible to
set up clear and operational experimental standards in this context. Consequently, researchers
applied a correlational study by analyzing the database in order to evaluate whether Latinos
would generally support Obama.
Researchers also have to take the trade-off into account by determining the scale of the
studies. External validity and internal validity are two important validities of the research
studies. External validity refers to the generalizability of the study and internal validity
concerns whether it avoids confounding variables (Morling, 2015). The level of external
validity is normally inversely proportional to the internal validity. A larger sample size would
generally allow greater resemblance to the population. However, it would also bring more
procedural problems to the studies. Researchers sometimes have to adjust their procedures in
accordance with their original goals and expectations of the studies. For example, in an
ecology experiment, the researchers chose to sacrifice the external validity of the experiment
in exchange for greater internal validity (Harrison, Gibbs, & Winfree, 2017). Researchers
were attempting to set up a causal relation between the types of landscapes and bees’ species.
The site selection for the field study was not random, which inevitably reduced the external
validity of the experiment. By doing this, however, researchers could be more successful in
ruling out any third variable while measuring the diversity of bees’ species, which in turn
enhanced the internal validity of the experiment.
Method
In this case study, I conducted an interview with Michael Culshaw-Maurer, who is currently a
fourth year PhD researcher majoring in ecology. Michael has had several years’ experience in
designing research projects, and he was willing to share his research experience with me.
During the interview, I asked several questions regarding what he thought of the common
challenges of research design and the tricks he used to tackle these issues. The content of the
interview was recorded in my notebook by pen.
Result
From Michael’s point of view, the most difficult challenge he encountered with research
design was the tradeoff between clarity and ecological reality. It was tricky to evaluate if the
lab conditions could mimic the scenarios in the real world. Other more realistic problems he
had to consider were funding and time. The amount of funding would determine the scale of
the experiment he could afford, and the timing was very crucial for studies involving
interactions between insects and plants.
Michael also provided his insight in terms of how to address these issues mentioned above.
He thought that making detailed plans in advance could effectively solve the timing and the
funding issues. In regards to the trade-off problem, Michael said he would constantly seek
help from his instructor and other experienced researchers to determine the ideal outcomes he
would expect to get from the experiment, and thus revised his research method accordingly,
Although the final call was made by him, gathering advice from other faculty helped him
select the most appropriate method that suited the purpose of the study.
Discussion
In order to design a research study which can effectively test the hypothesis, researchers must
know which type of research method might best answer the research question. In Michael’s
case, ecology studies generally favor the methods of experimental design, because a strong
causal effect could lead to meaningful future studies in this area. Researchers also have to
consider the potential pros and cons for their research design. It would be ideal for
researchers to know what would they expect from their studies prior to the study. Researchers
can also interact with other researchers in this field to verify the feasibility and the
meaningfulness of current research design. Getting feedback from other researchers,
especially the experts in the field, can prevent the research project from deviating from the
track. Michael said that attending seminars hosted by other departments of biology was
inspirational for him. Consulting researchers with expertise in different fields might have
unexpected surprises. Michael emphasized that he was always enlightened by the methods
used by other researchers. A broader conceptual question can spread across different systems,
which means the research methods originally used for other contexts might also be
applicable.
Varying timing and limited funding would force researchers to adjust some aspects of their
research design in order to achieve an optimal outcome from the studies. Reading literacies in
relation to the research topic can greatly assist the design of research. Some aspects of the
research method described in the paper might be helpful for other research projects. A trick
used by Michael is to look at the citations of the papers that interested him in order to find
other related papers. By using this method, researchers can quickly gather considerable
amounts of papers that may contain the information they need. Likewise, reading literacies
from different fields of science might also provide a new insight on how to approach the
research question.
Conclusion
In general, researchers are struggling with several common issues in research design,
including the selection of appropriate methods and the determination of the scale of studies.
Researchers can address these issues by seeking assistance from other experienced
researchers and making a plan for the research studies in advance. An important lesson I’ve
learned from my study is that the stages of research design should not be treated lightly. A
single flow of the research design has the power of undermining the research results
dramatically. A well-designed, applicable research plan, on the other hand, can save
researchers from trivial troubles after engaging in research. A peer-reviewed, carefully
assessed research plan not only contributes to valid results, but also makes researchers’ lives
a lot easier.
References
Morling, B. (2015). Research Methods in Psychology (3rd ed.).
Siegle, D. (2015). Introduction to correlation research. Retrieved from University of
Connecticut website: https://researchbasics.education.uconn.edu/correlation/
Bhat, A. (2018). Descriptive research: definition, characteristics, methods, examples and
advantages. Retrieved from https://www.questionpro.com/blog/descriptive-research/
Gerring, J. (2011). How Good Is Good Enough? A Multidimensional, Best-Poss …
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