1. Please ensure your introduction contains a paragraph of general information such as disease states in which the enzyme leels are raised, followed by three or four paragraphs of specific background info on the enzymes studied, biochemical principles followed in testing for the enzymes and some information about bioanalysers and the importance of QC. 2. Your methods is a reference to the lab manual 3. Use Tables 4.1, 4.2, 4.4, 4.7 and 4.8 to include reults obtained and use written expression in paragraph format to show that you understand your results. 4. Your discussion should be a 1-2-page critical analysis of your results. Use literature to support your findings and draw a conclusion regarding your patient case study. The Report: This report should follow the format for a written report detailed at the beginning of this manual. You will determine for your report what you consider the liver disease status of each patient to be. The discussion section of your report should include the reasoning for your conclusions.If you determine that the results for either of the patients does not confirm liver disease, then discuss the possible cause(s) for the abnormal values recorded in the patient history and suggest what further tests would you perform to proffer an alternative prognosis? If you believe a patient has liver disease, what other tests would be necessary to confirm the diagnosis? WRITTEN REPORTS: Written reports should have the following format: (Please do NOT use personal pronouns in the report) . 1-Introduction – a brief survey of what is known in the literature and includes the aims of the experiment. The introduction needs to be 1-1.5 pages in length The aim needs to be clearly stated at the end of the introduction (The aim of this practical is to perform AST and ALT analysis on 2 patient sera (MG & TR) and determine if the data supports a diagnosis of liver disease in either patient) 2- Methods: The methods section is a one-line reference to the lab manual. 3- Results – results should be presented in the form of a scientific journal, i.e., using numbered tables and figures with short succinct statements describing what these tables represent. 4- Discussion – in this section you discuss your results with reference to the literature. You should not simply repeat your results but provide your own insight in providing an explanation of your results in reference to the patient case studies.A 1-2-page length should be sufficient. 5-Conclusions – one or two brief sentences describing what your experiment has revealed. 6-References – use here only references that you have cited properly in the body of your report. EXPERIMENT :ENZYMOLOGY ENZYMES OF DIAGNOSTIC IMPORTANCE IN LIVER DISEASE This from manual: Many disease pathologies are characterized by a specific group of diagnostic enzymes that are found to be elevated in serum or plasma of the patients.These pathologies are commonly organ or tissue related, e.g., heart or liver disease.The results of enzyme assays do not usually stand alone in diagnosing the pathology but rather serve to confirm and quantify the condition.Many of the enzymes studied in the clinical lab are common to a number of organ and tissue types and it may require more specialized techniques such as electrophoresis, e.g., to identify isoenzymes indicative of the tissue of origin.Though helpful, such techniques can be labour intensive and generally not needed to diagnose the disease.Occasionally an assay may be selected to rule out a particular condition. What is important in the diagnostic setting is to provide reliable and valid data that supports the clinical investigation based on a carefully considered selection of diagnostic assays. In this practical you will investigate 2 patients with suspected liver disease, employing 2 of the more common liver function tests, namely Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT). These tests are often requested together as both the individual tests and the AST/ALT ratio can be informative. Marking: Introduction: Problem or question is stated engagingly with illuminating use of peerreviewed scientific articles. Background clear and concise relates the 2 enzymes being tested (AST, ALT) and a clear understanding of diagnosis techniques. Focusses on the tests being analysed for the 2 patients and why these tests are being used. Introduction includes clearly defined aims Result: Correct description and interpretation of the results. Included the required data as per guidelines: well presented, representative/ descriptive table/ figure/ axis titles: descriptive figure legend caption; experimental standard deviations indicated by error bars in the graph or ranges in tables if applicable; understandable in isolation of text. Correct analysis of results (reasonable comparison). Discussion: Sensible choice of sources allows ideas to be integrated in an original way; goes beyond an obvious collection of materials. Arguments backed by high quality and relevant supporting material. References integrated seamlessly with correct in-text citations. Conclusion: A clear and concise conclusion is provided based on the results and the literature. Current and future implications of diagnostic findings stated. Structure and presentation: Structure and presentation in the format of a journal article. References formatted correctly in text and in the reference list. At least 10 up-to-date and classic references. No inappropriate websites. Evidence of proof reading. Writing skills: Sophisticated use of language maximises interest and comprehension. Correct use of terminology and grammar, excellent sentence construction. Convincing clear arguments (not waffle). All non-standard acronyms defined. Critical analysis : Information is in-depth, organised, synthesised and reviewed to reveal insightful patterns, differences and similarities. Inferences are developed so that all claims and points are well supported. Comments correctly on precision and accuracy of the AST/ ALT analysis. Has clearly identified controlled (normal) and uncontrolled (abnormal) sera. Proposes other tests that may be useful to complete or improve the patient diagnosis
Enzymology Enzymes of Diagnostic Importance in Liver Disease Report
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