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1. Essay #3 Final Version (rough_draft is in the file)2. Finish Creative Research Paper Editing Checklist (in the file)3. Note to Jeannie, describing your process for writing the essay: What worked well for you? What didn’t work so well? What would you do differently if you could? Please mention some specifics about your essay–your introduction, for example, or a sentence you liked in one of your paragraphs, or something you think is still choppy or messy from your conclusion and why.
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Running head: UNETHICAL AND ETHICAL CONSUMPTION OF MEAT
Unethical and ethical consumption of meat: The fate is in the human hands
Institutional affiliation
Date
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UNETHICAL AND ETHICAL CONSUMPTION OF MEAT
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A seal feeds on a suid, a lion slays a dear, and a bear topples a fawn, and I never heard
people questioning why they feed on other animals. However, when it comes to human
consuming other animals, it becomes a different story. According to Gruen in her article, ‘The
Moral Status of Animals’ the above is not something new and has been a controversial subject
for decades. Some consider the consumption of meat ethical, others consider it unethical, and
others are just ‘on the fence’. It is not a white and black situation and Gruen state that as a result,
it has been hard to prove the ethicality of the consumption of meat as both the opponent and
proponent of eating meat have provided arguments and evidence that make deciding very hard
(Gruen, 2017). Using the fact that consumption of meat has played a big role in human
evolution, it makes meat consumption ethical, however, the degradation it causes to the
environment make it unethical; and it is a reason why I believe that humans should utilize their
intelligence to reduce the negative effect.
UNETHICAL AND ETHICAL CONSUMPTION OF MEAT
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“The reason I eat meat and feel so good while
doing it because it is proof that I have evolved. You cannot expect me to survive on root tubers
and leaves like the early man as it will be a back step in evolution.” This was Mark Delfino’s, an
anti-animal activist, confession to my interview question if he considered eating meat ethically
(Delfino M., personal communication, May 6, 2019). At first, I found his response questionable,
and as a result I embarked on a research to find out if there was any truth to it. That is when I
came across Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human a book by Harvard biological
anthropologist, Richard Wrangham. In the book, through use of various detailed examples and
evidence argues Wrangham argues that the shift from eating raw food, like root tubers, to eating
cooked meat was a key contributor to human evolution and more specifically their intelligence
and adaptability. He further urges people not to feel guilty while doing so as it was a sign of
progress evolutionary (Wrangham, 2019). Richard Wrangham argument is in line with Vaclav
Smil’s argument in the book, Should Human Eat Meat? In this book, Smil states that it is
justifiable and morally right to consume meat as it has contributed to the evolution of humans
and more specifically it has contributed to smaller guts, language, bipedalism and intelligence (
Smil, 2013). It is why I have to come acknowledging that since its a sign of progress
evolutionary, eating of meat is ethical.
UNETHICAL AND ETHICAL CONSUMPTION OF MEAT
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‘It is not ethical. Meat consumption
has many detrimental effects and should be stopped” this was Martina solo’s, a vegetarian,
response when a member of the focal group I participated in during my research asked if it was
right to eat meat (Solo,M., personal communication, May 6, 2019). I was intrigued by her
response, and I decided to visit a nearby animal city and processing plant to have a first-hand
experience of the disadvantages. After observing I discovered somethings. The first is that the
animal cities were putting strain onto the environment. The amount of forage, corn, and grass
used to feed the animals was substantial something which affected the sustainability of the
environment. I also could not help but notice that they deposited their waste in a nearby river.
My observations are in line with what Vaclav Smil reports in his book. Smil states that large
amount of feed is needed to fatten the animals in the animal cities something which has caused
over harvesting of vegetation which was otherwise soil cover. It is something that leads to soil
erosion. Smil also states that most of the animal cities do not have a waste disposal system hence
they dump their waste into rivers and nearby lands something which causes water pollution and
land degradation (Smil, 2013). They are reasons that makes people consider the consumption of
meat as unethical.
UNETHICAL AND ETHICAL CONSUMPTION OF MEAT
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“Am on the fence, when it comes to killing and
consumption of animal meat” It is what Tyler Doggett, a professor at the University of Vermont,
states in his youtube video philosophy – ethics: killing an animal for food. There are instances he
considers consumption of meat ethical and other times not ethical. He explains that it is only
ethical and morally right for humans to kill and feed on animals if they are stranded in a place
where they do not have any other option for a meal. However, he states that all the other times
when there are options of other types of meals, it is unethical (Doggett, 2014). Doggett is not
alone as David Katz in the article, ‘Stating Well Vs. Being Good; Can We Ethically Eat
Animals’, thinks that it is both ethically and unethically to feed on animals. However, his line of
thinking of what is ethical and unethical is different from Doggett. To him it moral as it helps in
the evolution and it is unethical as consumption of meat puts one at risk health wise. He
elaborates that high consumption of meat is associated with heart diseases. (Katz, 2013). Most
people are like Doggett and David as they believe that the consumption s both right and wrong.
Imagine a world without meat. Everybody would be walking on all fours, and they would
not have had the ability to think and come up with many things we see in the world today.
Humans would still be using primitive language to communicate. It enables one to realize fully
and to appreciate evolution and that it was and still is majorly contributed by meat consumption.
I cannot also ignore that there is a downside to the consumption of meat, but I think that the
UNETHICAL AND ETHICAL CONSUMPTION OF MEAT
advantage outweighs the disadvantage. However, since humans are an intelligent beings, they
should ensure that their meat consumption does not compromise the environment.
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UNETHICAL AND ETHICAL CONSUMPTION OF MEAT
References
Doggetts, Tyler (2014). Philosophy – Ethics: Killing Animals for Food. Wireless Philosophy

Gruen, Lori (2017). The moral status of animals eating.
Katz, David (2011). Eating Well Vs. Being Good: Can We Ethically Eat Animals?
Loughnan, S., Bastian, B., & Haslam, N. (2014). The psychology of eating animals. Current
Directions in Psychological Science, 23(2), 104-108.
Smil, Vaclav (2013). Should Humans Eat
Meat? https://www.scientificamerican.com/book/should-humans-eat-meat-excerpt/
Wrangham, R. (2009). Catching fire: how cooking made us human. Basic Books.
 Google images (2019). The three graphics used
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ENGL 126 Essay #3: Creative Research Paper (20% of course grade)
For essay #3, a creative research paper, you will be writing a 6-8 page paper on a
topic of your choice. A unique aspect of this project is that you are required to do
field work (interviews, observations, participation), along with library research,
which should make this a more memorable experience for you. All the better if
your research paper departs from the conventional academic format. Along with
credible sources, you may use graphics, video, artwork, etc. to convey your
message. Build a nuanced argument using effective sources and a sensible
organization. It’s vital that you choose a topic that engages and excites you. This
should be an original paper, not a research paper that you wrote for another class.
Requirements
length: 6-8 pages
Works Cited and Works Consulted (if needed), including citations for interviews,
Youtube, Facebook, etc).
Sources:
Reading: At least 80 pages of reading (a minimum of 4 sources). You must use a
minimum of 3 library sources. This could include books, articles and newspapers
from the databases, reference sources, etc., at DVC library or another library.
Field Work: In addition to the above, you must use at least 3 items of field work
drawn from at least two of these categories:
•Interviews
•Observation
•Participatory Experience*
*A participatory experience involves doing something yourself, not just watching
it be done. This could include cooking a meal, marching in a protest, volunteering
at an environmental organization, applying for a modeling agency, rotating the
wheels on your car, writing a piece of music, etc.
Other optional sources: workshops and cultural events
Media 1 (film, music, photos, visuals)
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Media 2 (film, music, photos, visuals that you create).
________________________________________________________________________
We will also work on developing a Critical Question to help focus your research.
Rather than just giving a factual, encyclopedic account, you’ll want to present an
arguable thesis answering a question of significance and interest. Your critical
question should be along the lines of the following questions, but narrowed to fit
your specific topic:
What problem under your topic needs solving or addressing? What’s the problem
with the solutions?
What standards of judging something exist in your area? Where are the disputes?
What ethical or moral issue(s) exist that need exploring?
What do you envision the future would look like for your topic (based on a
careful look at the present and past)?
What do the best thinkers think and argue about? What do the experts disagree
about?
What’s been the influence of a particular person or subject on our culture?
How do you account for an interesting, complicated, inexplicable, or perplexing
aspect of our current society?
______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Critical Question Litmus
(Write your Critical Question (CQ) on a notecard and run it through these tests
with your peers to see how you might make it better)
1. Yes-No Test: Is CQ a yes/no question? (It shouldn’t be).
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2. Been There, Done That Test: Does your CQ feel like it’s been asked, discussed,
and answered many times before (since high school)? ( It shouldn’t.)
3. Is your CQ open-ended, speculative, disputable in a fair way (reasonable, smart,
wise people will legitimately disagree). (It should be)
4. Hey, That’s My Old Research Paper Test: Will the answer to your CQ create a
conventional, familiar research paper (based mostly on information available by
reading) (It shouldn’t).
5. Critical Thinking Test: Will answering your CQ force you to do high level
analysis (the higher levels on Bloom’s taxonomy)? analysis, synthesis, evaluation
(It should).
6. Creativity Test: Is your topic and CQ well-suited to the spirit of the assignment
(traditional/web reading, interviews, observing, doing yourself, critical thinking)?
7. Know-It-All Test: Do you already know the answer to your CQ before you start
your project? (you shouldn’t)
8. Where does your topic and CQ fall on the passion scale? Does your topic/CQ
fascinate and excite you? Do you actually want to explore the answers to the CQ?
_______________________________________________________________________
Research Checklist: Make a list of important sources you should check. Think of
creative ways to search, using not only your topic (memory) but also prominent
people in the field (Oliver Sacks), related topics (brain functioning), or even the
opposite (forgetting).
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________________________________________________________________________
Creative Research Proposal:
1. At the start of your proposal, explain what your final Creative Research topic is
(you can’t change the topic. You should choose something you are really
interested in so that you can develop your research over the time period needed).
Then write one (or possibly two or three) Critical Questions on your chosen topic.
2. Write a paragraph explaining what draws you to the topic. What makes you
curious? What do you love about this topic? What might you expect to find out?
What do you know about your topic? What would you like to know? As you plan
your project, consider how your questions will require you to participate in critical
thinking–analysis, synthesis, evaluation.
3. Report on what you have read so far, both traditional and online. You can
include reading that you’ve done in the past.
4. Report on what you plan to do–who you might interview, what you might
observe, what you might do for participation, what you might create.
5. Tip: Start making a works cited right now and develop a system to keep track
of which source you found what information from.
6. Questions or concerns? Include these in your proposal.
_______________________________________________________________________
DUE DATES:
Thurs. 3/14 Final research proposal due.
Thurs. 4/11 Research question due and research checklist due.
Thurs. 4/25 Two versions of your introduction for essay 3 due
Thurs. 5/2 Annotated Bibliography and half-draft of essay 3 due
Tues. 5/7 Full draft of essay 3 due
Thurs. 5/16 Final paper due (Final paper, Drafts, Scans or screen shots of a page
from each source, Peer Review Sheets, Research Proposal, Research checklist, and
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Annotated Bibliography)
________________________________________________________________________
• You must provide SCANS OR SCREENSHOTS of selected pages from all printed
source materials you use for this essay as well as Internet sources. You must also
submit an Annotated Bibliography. These are required parts of this assignment,
and your essay will not be accepted if not accompanied by photocopies/printouts
of selected pages from your sources and an annotated bibliography. In your
Works Cited list, include full information about all of the sources you used or
consulted.

No Plagiarism! Do not copy your essay or any phrases in your essay from
the web or any other source, unless you use quotations and give proper
bibliographic citations. Also, please write this original paper yourself and
do not reuse a research paper from a previous class.
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Essay #3 Creative Research Paper Editing Checklist:
1. Are the titles of books, movies, albums, or paintings underlined or italicized?
Are the titles of chapters, articles, songs, or other shorter works placed in
quotation marks? Edit, then check here: ____
2. Is the Works Cited in the following format? (see MLA format on the Purdue OWL
website)____
Works Cited
Clemmitt, Marcia. “Mortgate Crisis.” CQ Researcher 17.39 (2007) 913-936. CQ
Researcher Online. Access 23 Nov. 2016.
Double check that the order of components, punctuation, and indentation all conform to
the example above. Ask me if you have a question about how to cite your source.___
3. Are quotes connected to your sentences? __
A recent biography starts out by claiming that Capote’s father
“might almost have been taken for a Yankee” (Clarke 3).
None of the quotes should be floating on their own. They all must be attached to your
sentence. Take control of the quote by introducing it in you own words and following up
with your own words explaining how the quote fits into your argument.
1. Have you started and ended paragraphs NOT with a quote, but with your own
words? You may write in changes on your paper. ____
5. Do your pages have page numbers at the top right hand? _____
6. Does your paper have an interesting title? If not, write one in._____
7. To check for possible spelling errors, proofread backwards, from the end of a line to
the beginning, or read line by line with a sheet of paper, and check here: ____
1. Are your choices of words (diction) and sentence structures precise, varied
(short and long), and descriptive enough? Edit and check here: ____
2. Have you given a parenthetical citation at the end of all quotes or information
in your own words taken from a source? Have you used the author’s lat name
or an abbreviated version of the title if there is no author or more than one
work by the same author? Example: (“Economic Downturn”) ___
3. Please underline your thesis and the topic sentence of each paragraph, if
apparent. It’s not necessary to have an explicit thesis. ___
4. Have you submitted the following assignments?:
● your research proposal ___
● annotated bibliography (bibliography with paragraphs, in your own words)___
● introductions, half-draft and full-draft___
● peer editing__
● photocopies, screenshots, or printouts of ONE page from EACH of your
sources, including books and websites, labeled, so I can tell which is which
___
● essay 3 research question and checklist____
*essay 3 workshop____
● Works Cited (works you drew from in your final essay 3) ____
* optional: Works Referenced (works which influenced you ideas but which you did not
cite)___
● this checklist, checked off.
● Note to Jeannie, describing your process for writing the essay: What worked
well for you? What didn’t work so well? What would you do differently if you
could? Please mention some specifics about your essay–your introduction,
for example, or a sentence you liked in one of your paragraphs, or something
you think is still choppy or messy from your conclusion and why.
1. Is your paper 6-8-pages typed double-spaced pages (not including the Works
Cited)__
1. Did you cite from a minimum of the following sources (more sources are fine)
● THREE outside sources from the library (this can be criticism, a related
essay, historical background, etc. . . )___
● ONE source from the web (can be substituted with additional library
sources)___
● THREE items of field work, drawn from two of the following categories:
–interviews_______
–observation_________
–and participatory experience_______
Something you can do at home in front of your tv or computer, such as watching a
video, watching an interview, or reading a survey, does not count as field work.
1. Along the lines of a non-academic article like “The Overprotected Kid,” does
your paper demonstrate a sense of voice to interest your reader? Have you
tried to make your introduction engaging in a specific way, such as with a
story?_________
2. Does you paper flow coherently, with a thesis or implied thesis that
encompasses the overall argument, a conclusion that synthesizes your thesis
and findings, and transitions to show how you get from one subject or aspect
of your topic to the next?___
3. Is there a parenthetical citation(s) (Pollan 33) in your essay to show where
you have used each of your sources in your works cited? If so, you may add:
_____
4. Are your photocopies/scans/screenshots of a page from each source clearly
labeled with the last name or title of the source? If not, please label them.___
5. Have you used a range of credible sources to back up your opinions?___
6. Have you used appropriate quotations as evidence?____
7. Does your paper incorporate your field work in a readable way into your text,
as shown by the sample excerpts from Proteus student papers? _____
______________________________________________________________________
Use MLA format for citing sources. Include a Works Cited at the end.
The format for a book:
Trask, R.L. Language: The Basics. 2nd ed., Routledge, 1999.
For an interview:
Brown, Charlie. Personal Interview. 10 Nov. 2016.
For a website:
“Discourse Analysis.” Linguistic Society of America. 2012. 22 Nov. 2016
http://www.linguisticsociety.org/resource/discourse-analysis-what-speakers-doconversation.
For a video:
McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 22 Nov.
2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v =mkdzy9bWW3E.
MLA format:
Your final paper should be in MLA (Modern Language Association) format. Detailed
information can be found at this link:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
(Links to an external site.)
Links to an external site.
Some key formatting points I am looking for in your final paper:

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