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(minimum 750 words; no maximum)Philosophers of Technology have often argued that technologies are value-laden rather than being merely value-neutral. One reason for thinking so is because the act of building or making always presupposes value-judgments about what we think is worth building or making in the first place. Put another way, what we make or build often reveals what we think is worth doing: making and building reveal what we take to be a problem, and whether that problem is worth solving.In Paper 1, you wrote about how introducing new technologies into different cultures require their people to adapt or change their lifestyles, including the sphere of life we might call the political (that is, how and where they work, how they think, how they live, how they form organizations and institutions, etc.). In Paper 3, you will do the same kind of analysis but with your senior project in mind.Give an account of your own values infrastructures (see the reading by Cook) that explain your intentions behind the design of your senior project. Assume that your senior design project is going to be adopted in a country outside the US and Canada. Consider the potential for conflict at the level of differing values infrastructures between you as a designer and the adopting population as end users.In your write up, be sure to:1. Describe what you are building for your senior project.2. Explain: why you are making it?; how are you making it?; for whom are you making it?3. Assume that your design will be adopted in a country outside the US and Canada. Pick one country only.4. Give an account of your own values infrastructures that best explain your intentions behind your senior project. Consider the intentions behind your design and the intentions of your targeted end users. Can you anticipate or foresee unintentional consequences in your design? Can you foresee whether your design will be used ethically or unethically? Are there any ways you would not want your design to be used at all?GradingWrite an essay that addresses the questions above. When you respond to these questions, you should be specific and cite specific details from the readings, class lectures, and your own research. You may provide references from your own research, but only in addition to material provided by the course. Also, you should make sure to cite your sources in your response and include a reference list at the end of your essay. Citations must be from reputable sources. Sites like Wikipedia, about.com, etc. are NOT considered acceptable sources.Higher credit will be given for responses that show evidence of a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the topics involved.You are encouraged to review the rubric for this assignment and make sure that you answer each question in detail and with specifics.Correct use of English is a fundamental requirement for your papers to be graded. If errors in English make it difficult for a grader to understand your sentences, or excessively slow down the grader to mark your technical errors, your paper will be returned to you for further work on its English, and your grade for the paper will be deferred until it is resubmitted with corrected English. If your assignment is returned for an excessive number of grammatical errors, you will be allowed to rewrite and resubmit it within two weeks of the original return date. If not resubmitted by the date set by your instructor, you will receive a zero (0) for the writing assignment.FormattingStandard font, preferably Arial in either 11pt or 12pt.MLA, APA, or any other format is acceptable provided that it is consistent through the entire paper. Please, no cover sheets.CriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeThesis20.0 ptsThesis is clear and coherent throughout the entire paper.17.0 ptsThesis is clear and coherent throughout most of the paper.14.0 ptsThesis is intelligible, but needs work.10.0 ptsThesis is unclear or incoherent.6.0 ptsThesis is missing.0.0 ptsNo observable effort in writing a thesis.20.0ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDescription20.0 ptsDescriptions of senior project design and its introduction to another country are clear and relevant.17.0 ptsDescriptions of senior project design and its introduction to another country are sufficiently clear and relevant.14.0 ptsDescriptions of senior project design and its introduction to another country are intelligible, but need work.10.0 ptsDescriptions of senior project design and its introduction to another country are unclear or irrelevant.6.0 ptsDescriptions are missing.0.0 ptsNo observable effort in describing.20.0ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeValues Infrastructures20.0 ptsExplanation of values infrastructures is clear and detailed.17.0 ptsExplanation of values infrastructures is sufficiently clear and detailed.14.0 ptsExplanation of values infrastructures is intelligible, but needs work.10.0 ptsExplanation of values infrastructures is unclear and irrelevant.6.0 ptsExplanation is missing.0.0 ptsNo observable effort in explaining.20.0ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeReflection on Ethics and Senior Project Design20.0 ptsReflection upon ethics, intention, and design is clear and detailed.17.0 ptsReflection upon ethics, intention, and design is sufficiently clear and detailed.14.0 ptsReflection upon ethics, intention, and design is intelligible, but needs work.10.0 ptsReflection upon ethics, intention, and design is unclear and lacks detail.6.0 ptsReflection is missing.0.0 ptsNo observable effort in reflecting.20.0ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeEssay Mechanics20.0 ptsExecutes on spelling, grammar, and paragraph structure perfectly.17.0 ptsExecutes on spelling, grammar, and paragraph structure nearly perfectly.14.0 ptsExecutes on spelling, grammar, and paragraph structure intelligibly.10.0 ptsPervasive problems in spelling, grammar, sentence and/or paragraph structure.6.0 ptsEnough pervasive problems in spelling, grammar, sentence and/or paragraph structure to make overall essay very difficult to understand.0.0 ptsNo observable effort in essay mechanics.20.0ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSLO 3: Cultural change outside U.Sthreshold: 3.0 pts5.0 ptsExceeds Expectations3.0 ptsMeets Expectations0.0 ptsDoes Not Meet Expectations–Total Points: 100.0
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Pengkun Chen
Prof Kyle Yrigoyen
ENGR 195B
February 17
Political Qualities Inherent In Technology
A solar cells or photoelectric cell is an electrical device in a solid state that
converts light energy directly into electricity through the photovoltaic. The energy of light
is usually transmitted by photons, which are small quantum or packet of light. The
development of solar cell technology was initiated in 1839 by the research done by a
French physicist Antoine-Cesar Becquerel made the observation of photovoltaic effect
during his experimentation with a solid electrode inside an electrolyte solution (Pegels et
al., 2018). He observed the development of voltage when the light fell upon the
electrode. From there Charles Fritts invented the first solar cell in 1883 through the use
of junctions by coating a semiconductor (selenium) with a very thin gold layer. Albert
Einstein described the photoelectric effect in 1905, and he received the Physics Nobel
prize in 1921. Later on, in 1941, Russell Ohl invented the silicon solar cell which ad
inefficiencies in energy conversion. In 1954, three American researchers, Calvin Fuller,
Gerald Pearson, and Daryl Chapin designed efficient solar cells which were capable of
a 6% energy conversion in a highly efficient way with direct sunlight.
China is the biggest solar market around the globe. It has installed capacity of
about 130 GW which is far much higher than that of US and Japan which are roughly,
60 GW and 46 GW respectively (Zhang et al., 2017). The Chinese are using solar cell
energy for various purposes including solar water heating in which the country has
recorded the largest capacity globally, with about 290 GW recorded annually. Besides,
solar power has replaced fossil fuels such as coal in the manufacturing and processing
industries as a renewable source of energy. In the recent years, China has surpassed
several countries in the adoption of solar cell technology, in a move to help most
Chinese countries to thrive in tougher export markets and to cut the nation’s dangerous
over-reliance in coal. Also, there are many manufacturers of solar panels in China, and
they have overtaken the Japan, German, and U.S manufacturers within a single decade
and emerged the world’s biggest source of solar panels and a leading user or consumer
too.
The Solar cells technology possessed some inherent political qualities, and it has
greatly influenced the political behavior of people in China in various ways. Solar
electric technology is imbued with political character regarding the present national
political scene in China and as inherently, innately political. It interacts with
environmentalism politics, it has challenges and can bring about the redistribution of
wealth and its decentralization (Zhang et al., 2017). Just as most users of solar electric
technology think, it is true that technological artifact is actually political. It both interacts
with the current Chinese political structures and presents an alternative to them as well.
Again, the perspectives of the people on the politics inherent in solar technology
have shaped their understandings of different limitations to as well as the motivations
for adoption of the alternative technology which is in one way or another more efficient
than the fossil fuels used before its introduction such as coal. Generating electricity from
solar energy through solar electric generation technology or PV provides a substitute for
the dominant types of electric generation that rely on fossil fuels (Lin & Purra, 2019).
The politics of Photovoltaic technology are complex as well as multi-faceted, and there
are several ways in which their political relations can be theorized.
The introduction of solar energy in China has presented an opportunity to extend
the control and responsibility to a larger number of people. It also presents an
opportunity for the creation of diversity rather than uniformity in the Chinese
sociotechnical constitution. In this sense, the residential solar panels are a soft path
technology which majorly relies on standard, small, easy-to-make components as well
as technical resources that are dispersed in many organizations of different sizes or
habits (Lin & Purra, 2019). Thus, everyone can get into the act, unimpeded by these
decentralized bureaucracies. Therefore, Solar cells technology in China is an instance
in which most critical technology theorists ascribed inherent political qualities of
properties to technical systems.
Further, my position regarding whether or not the introduction of solar cells
technology to China was ethical is that it is actually very ethical. This is because solar
energy is an alternative to the fossil fuels that are polluting the planet. Solar cells are a
renewable and eco-friendly energy source, and their introduction to China will actually
help make the people live greener lives (Pegels et al., 2018). Solar panels are a positive
and ethical add at home especially to sunny countries like China. Solar energy is a
revolution that brings good to the country, the environment, and the people. Fostering
solar energy in China is ethical as it means mitigating the pollution systems such as coil
and oil.
The introduction of Solar cell technology in China is ethical, and technology
possesses some inherently political properties. This argument is supported by the
propositions of two technological theories. The substantive theory view technology as a
religion because one chooses to use it they do not simply render their existing way of
life more efficient, they choose a different way of life (Winner, 2017). The introduction of
solar cell technology in China makes it go down the technology development, and it will
be transformed into a technological society, a particular type of society, which is
dedicated to values like power and efficiency. Again, the Critical theory recognizes
holds that humans do not need to wait for God to transform their technological society
into a better place to live. They should be innovative, welcome technology and device
appropriate institutions that can exercise human control over it to minimize associated
problems.
References
Lin, K. C., & Purra, M. M. (2019). Transforming China’s electricity sector: Politics of
institutional change and regulation. Energy policy, 124, 401-410.
Pegels, A., Vidican-Auktor, G., Luetkenhorst, W., & Altenburg, T. (2018). Politics of
green energy policy. The Journal of Environment & Development, 27(1), 26-45.
Winner, L. (2017). Do Artifacts Have Politics? Computer Ethics, 177-192.
doi:10.4324/9781315259697-21
Zhang, D., Wang, J., Lin, Y., Si, Y., Huang, C., Yang, J., … & Li, W. (2017). Present
situation and future prospect of renewable energy in
Sustainable Energy Reviews, 76, 865-871.
China. Renewable and

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