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Question 1 Discuss what you would consider as the one most significant roadblock companies are likely to face in implementing the ANSI/AIHA Z10 standards in a typical manufacturing organization. What steps might the company consider to overcome this roadblock? Your response must be at least 75 words in length. Question 2 Since risk cannot be reduced to zero, the as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) concept is often applied. How can this concept be used to determine acceptable levels of risk? What might be some pitfalls to applying this concept? Your response must be at least 75 words in length. Question 3 Apply the concept of acceptable risk to a hazard prevalent at a place where you work or have worked. If you prefer, you could discuss a job with inherent hazards (e.g. fire fighter, steel erection connector, etc.). Make sure you address the concepts of zero, minimum, and acceptable risk in your discussion. Your response must be at least 200 words in length. Question 4 Management Leadership and Employee Participation has been said to be the most important section of ANSI/AIHA Z10. Why do you think this is the case? Support your discussion with examples from personal experience. Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

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Introduction to Safety Management Systems
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
5. Apply risk management principles to reduce the impact of workplace hazards.
5.1 Apply the concept of acceptable risk to a workplace scenario.
5.2 Describe how the as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) concept can be used in
determining acceptable levels of risk.
7. Examine management tools necessary to implement effective safety management systems.
7.1 Analyze a major section of ANSI/AIHA Z10.
7.2 Analyze the possible challenges companies may face in implementing ANSI/AIHA Z10.
Learning Outcomes
Learning Activity
Unit lesson; Chapter 2; Assessment
Unit lesson; Chapter 2; Assessment
Unit lesson; Introduction; Chapter 1; Assessment
Unit lesson; Chapter 1; Assessment
Reading Assignment
Chapter 1: Overview of ANSI/AIHA Z10-2012
Chapter 2: Achieving Acceptable Risk Levels: The Operational Goal
Unit Lesson
Welcome! While this course will introduce you to the concepts of safety management systems, the “total” in
the course title means that you will also be drawing from the knowledge gained in previous courses to
complete the unit assignments and the course project. After completing the course, you should have
increased confidence in applying what you have learned in your educational journey to real-word situations.
The term total, in the course title also aligns with an approach to management that you may have heard of in
the past. That approach is Total Quality Management or TQM, and it was introduced into the United States by
Dr. Edward Deming who essentially proposed a new, continuous improvement-focused way of managing
quality in organizations. His approach was successful and was implemented with great success by some of
the largest organizations in the world that actually improved on his methods. Many of these organizations also
noted that these new quality management tools also could be applied to other difficult-to-manage issues that
presented themselves in the workplace, including occupational safety and health.
BOS 3651, Total Environmental Health and Safety Management
This course will essentially focus on theUNIT
of safety
and health
management systems that grew out of the
TQM movement. It also will
examine the success experienced by a large number of organizations
that have seen a dramatic decrease in injuries and illnesses in the
workplace by implementing Occupational Safety and Health (OSH)
programs that align with TQM principles. The course will also allow you
to apply these concepts in your coursework and hopefully provide you
with some useful information to improve the safety and health program
efforts where you work.
Given the success experienced in many organizations as a result of
their safety and health program efforts, you might wonder what a
Many different fields use safety
successful OSH program looks like. What are the characteristics that
set one organization apart from another when it comes to reducing the
(Boyd, Maier, & Caton, 2008)
numbers of illnesses and injuries? Perhaps your answer would include
things like compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) standards,
elimination of workplace hazards, or training that addresses all of the safety standard requirements. After all,
these are the types of things many organizations focus on when it comes to guiding their safety and health
Of course, these are all important factors to consider as compliance with safety standards is useful for
eliminating workplace hazards, and avoiding OSHA citations is always a good thing as well. A complianceonly approach, however, can only take a company so far when it comes to assuring a safe and healthful
workplace. This is largely because many workplace injuries and illnesses are not so much the result of
employers’ lack of effort to comply but are more closely tied to the willingness of employees to embrace
workplace safety measures. In essence, employees can and often do sabotage employer safety efforts.
Employees can choose, for instance, to not wear their fall protection or bypass machine guards when
management is not looking and sometimes with the approval of their supervisors. Consider a situation where
Ralph, a long-time employee, continues to use an old, dilapidated, unguarded table saw instead of its
replacement. He tells his supervisor, “I’ve been using this ol’ saw for 18 years and it has not hurt me yet.”
Rather than fight with Ralph, the supervisor lets him continue to use the old saw knowing that there will likely
be no consequence.
Stories similar to Ralph’s are not all that uncommon in companies that utilize a compliance approach to safety
and essentially dictate safety rules and compliance-based solutions to their workers. This is one benefit of the
total safety management approach because a great deal of effort is made to make occupational safety and
health a core value of the organization and to affect the organization’s culture. In such an organization, people
do not conduct themselves in a safe manner and follow rules to keep from getting into trouble; rather, they do
so because it is a cultural expectation of the organization, and it would seem odd not to follow the safety
With this said, you may have heard that organizations with a well-developed safety culture are the most
successful, but most of us would be hard-pressed to really define a safety culture. Is it when safety is an
inherent value rather than a simple priority? Is it when management demonstrates a great deal of commitment
to safety or empowers employees? Is it when everyone in an organization is involved with its safety and
health efforts? Maybe it is all of these things. On the other hand, it may be some combination of these things.
One thing that is clear, however, is that it is hard to pinpoint exactly what it means for an organization to have
a safety culture. Another thing is certain. It does not occur on its own.
Organizations with successful accident prevention programs work hard to get there. One of the factors these
organizations seem to have in common is that they have a safety management process that guides them in
their efforts. Another characteristic is that the process evolves. That is, once a problem is solved, the
organization is proactive in looking for other ways to prevent the incident from happening again. Is this not the
same type of system that organizations use to manage their business processes? Yes, this is key. Successful
OSH programs are managed in much the same way as other business processes. There are at least two
advantages to this. First, is that the language of the system is already familiar to the non-safety folks in the
organization, so they are more willing to adopt it. Second, it seems to work.
BOS 3651, Total Environmental Health and Safety Management
If you research safety management standards, you will find that there is an abundance.
The British
Standards Institute publishes the Occupational Health and Safety AssessmentTitle
Series (OHSAS) 18001 and
British Standard (BS) 8800; the International Labor Organization (ILO) publishes ILO-OSH 2001. This course
will introduce you to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Industrial Hygiene
Association’s (AIHA) ANSI/AIHA Z10, American National Standard for Occupational Health and Safety
Management Systems (Z10 for short). Why focus on this standard as opposed to the others? Z10 was
developed to include and build on many of the best management practices from the other available standards
(Manuele, 2014). Even if your organization already uses one of the other standards, you will find that Z10 is
compatible and can add value.
The course is not designed to get you to use Z10 exclusively but to help you recognize the characteristics of a
good safety management system and how such a management system can be used to develop or improve an
OSH program. Nearly all safety management systems contain similar elements, for example, management
leadership, employee participation, hazard analysis, risk assessment, incident investigation, and audits. Even
OSHA’s Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) has most of these elements (OSHA, n.d.).
So, why not just use VPP? OSHA’s VPP program was developed in the 1980s to recognize the safety efforts
of high-performing organizations. It was not developed as a safety management standard, although, over the
years, it has become a de facto standard of sorts. VPP has been criticized lately for not being effective. Some
organizations that have maintained VPP Star status for years are still experiencing serious accidents and,
occasionally, even fatalities.
One of the things that sets Z10 apart from VPP and many of
the published standards is its focus on continuous
improvement—specifically, the use of Deming’s Plan-DoCheck-Act (PDCA) cycle throughout the standard. Later in the
course, we will spend time reviewing the PDCA concepts and
practice applying them. One of the pitfalls of using VPP or any
standard is the temptation to reach the end, full compliance
with the standard and then reduce efforts. Z10 recognizes that
the process is never complete and drives organizations to
continuous improvement.
The ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable)
principle is a term used in the OSH field.
(Legg, 2007)
Z10 also focuses on assessing workplace hazards in terms of
risk rather than standards compliance. In an ideal world, we
would be able to reduce workplace risk to zero, but the very
nature of risk as an expression of probability makes this
impossible. As discussed by Manuele (2014), one of the most
important management tasks related to workplace safety is
the defining of acceptable risk. There is no one-size-fits-all
definition. Each organization will have different constraints
related to its own processes and finances, and finances do
play an important role in defining acceptable risk. If an
organization has an effective safety management system,
however, the safety culture can help the organization reach a
consensus. We will be referring back to risk and risk
management frequently as we learn more about Z10.
Throughout the course, we will be looking deeper into the process elements of Z10 and using them to
evaluate OSH programs where you work or used to work. The course project will be a report to management
on the status of the safety program, with recommendations and timelines to correct deficiencies and put the
organization on the path to a world-class OSH program.
Boyd, M. A., Maier, M. P., & Caton, J. E. (2008, December 9). Capability management [Image]. Retrieved
BOS 3651, Total Environmental Health and Safety Management
Legg, D. W. (2007, June 28). Carrot diagram [Image]. Retrieved from
Manuele, F. A. (2014). Advanced safety management: Focusing on Z10 and serious injury prevention (2nd
ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (n.d.). OSHA voluntary protection programs (VPP). Retrieved
BOS 3651, Total Environmental Health and Safety Management

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