150 words each discussion. No plagiarism and use academic resources.
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Define and provide a research example of each of the following: shaping and chaining,
reinforcement schedules, and one-trial learning.
Reinforcement schedules are a systemic way to enforce learning that is based on a schedule either
known or unknown towards progression. Pet animals rather a dog, cat, gerbil, or rabbit often learn
from a reinforcement schedule. In fact they are trained in this manner because if they do a task
they get a treat. And then the task is done and the treat is there. The purpose of teaching the task is
completed through the reinforcement schedules.
Hulac, D., Benson, N., Nesmith, M. C., & Wollersheim Shervey, S. (2016). Using Variable
Interval Reinforcement Schedules to Support Students in the Classroom: An Introduction with
Illustrative Examples. Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 6(1), 90–96. Retrieved from
Shaping and chaining is a way to create a new behavior when one is not adapt to being in that
behavior. Often there are games that will let you get to a target by saying higher, lower, higher,
higher, lower until the desired target is reached. That is like shaping and chaining, piece by piece
instruction is given to get to the desired target. BBB Autism (2002) states the rules for shaping and
chaining are define the target behavior, reinforce successive approximations of the target behavior,
and then monitor results. Often with a innate situation, the need to shape and chain their behavior
is necessary as with a person who suffers from autism. The purpose is to allow them to succeed
productively in a society that acts a certain way. With the shaping and chaining, one could learn
the adaptive way to live and be successful on their own despite their deficits.
Shaping and Chaining(2002). Retrieved from
Select one of the four professional fields: environmental or evolutionary psychology, forensic
psychology, health or sports psychology, or industrial/organizational or engineering psychology.
Using published research findings; provide an example of how professionals might train
individuals to maximize their memories. Then, generate your own examples of how you might
maximize your own memory.
Maximizing my memory has always been challenging for me because there is always so much for
me to remember. In many cases I am listening to an important piece of information while I am in
the middle of doing at least one other task, drawing my full attention away from what needs to be
memorized. In order to improve, I write things down on a list every day. When I see the tasks on
the list it is easier for me to remember what needs to be done because of the visual processing that
has occurred, storing the list image in a separate part of the brain that is easier for me to recall than
something I was told. I have found the list making to be very helpful, and have encouraged my son
to start doing it with his long-term homework assignments. We break them down into a few short
tasks over the course of the week, and this allows him to stay on top of the project without falling
behind while also remember what needs to be done for each day. Another strategy I have
employed in the past is using index cards to study, and drawing a unique picture next to each
term/definition. This picture solidifies the information for me and helps me recall the meaning or
the vocabulary term.
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