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Post your formal presentation. The presentation should cover two specific items:Explain how your Project addressed the Core Program Outcomes of your project.Your critical self-assessment of your Project using the SWOT analysis.The presentation should have one slide for each Core Program Outcome and a slide for the SWOT analysis. The presentation should be no longer than 15 minutes in duration.In this activity, you will start to apply the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis method to your final project.The SWOT analysis of your project will be incorporated into your presentation due in Module 8. This presentation must address the core program outcomes; as part of this presentation, you will use critical thinking to present a SWOT analysis of your project highlighting the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats within your problem-solving project.Perform a SWOT analysis using your project as the base of your analysis. After the analysis is complete, you will present this information in your oral presentation. Use a quadrant style format to conduct the SWOT analysis. You may use this SWOT Template as a guide but it is not a requirement. Your analysis of your project must include a minimum of three bullet points for each of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.Compile a brief summary of your SWOT analyses into a one-page document. Use this as the bases for your discussion in your presentation in Module 8. Provide relevant details from the SWOT analyses to support your choices. Be sure to answer the following questions: Does your project have unacceptable weaknesses or threats? Are the strengths and opportunities better for one of the platforms?Resources:A SWOT analysis is a method used to analyze many different things, largely in the business world but is an extremely flexible and easy method to apply. Examples provided in this document are for instructional purposes only SWOT SampleWatch the following videos to get a better understanding of a SWOT analysis:Conducting a SWOT analysis (Lynda.com 3:00) (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.How to Perform a SWOT Analysis (YouTube 7:02)
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Running head: RUNWAY INCURSION ERRORS
Current Function of Communication Errors and other Human Factors Can Cause Runway
Incursions
by
May 2019
1
RUNWAY INCURSION ERRORS
2
Abstract
The objective of this study is to examine primary sources of research in the form of journals and
other scholarly sources to determine the causes of runway incursions and the communication and
human functions that contribute to such cases as well as how to control exposure to incursion
hazards. The method used to conduct the research was primarily desktop research and content
analysis. To this end, academic libraries were utilized from various digital platforms and print
academic material was analyzed to find the possible causes of runway incursions and potential
mitigation measures. The study aimed to confirm whether runway incursions are caused by many
hazards related to human functions in the form of misunderstandings among the pilots,
miscommunication and complexities in airport designs and protocols. The results of the study
indicated that runway incursions are predominantly human-made. These incursions have caused
disruptions in airports and several of them have the potential to result in serious accidents which
may lead to fatalities. The findings thus confirmed the argument that indeed runway incursions are
predominantly caused by miscommunication, misunderstandings, fatigue and anxiety.
Keywords: Runway incursions, human-machine interface, airport, human factors,
communication error
RUNWAY INCURSION ERRORS
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Current Function of Communication Errors and other Human Factors Can Cause Runway
Incursions
The success of the aviation industry is dependent on the safety of passengers who travel by
air. Incidences of runway incursions, however, negatively influence the growth of the aviation
industry by contributing to losses and creating fear among traveller who experience incidences of
runway incursions. Runway incursion refers to a situation where there is an object, person, vehicle
or airplane blocking the runway, thus creating a risk of collision (Young & Jones, 2001). When
there is an object on the runway in use, there is a risk that an airplane in the process of landing or
take-off might hit the object or vehicle, and this may lead to loss of lives and property.
A runway incursion is a problem because it impedes the success of the aviation industry.
To begin with, runway incursions have the potential of hurting society (Cardosi & Yost, 2001;
Galle et al, 2010). In an accident involving the Singaporean aircraft on a runway in Taiwan, for
instance, 82 people lost their lives and property including the aircraft (which was also destroyed).
Besides death and loss of property, the airline could also face a lawsuit due to pilot errors that led
to communication errors thus losing more money and damaging its reputation. Whether life is lost
or not, Galle et al (2010) states that runway incursions could also make the public lose confidence
in air transport. The functions of communication errors and human factors causing runway
incursions are not well understood, and they are explored in this paper.
This study is important because it contributes to the academic society by adding to the body
of knowledge in this area that is poorly conceptualized and comprising fragmented documentation.
The present inquiry has also established the functions of communication errors and other humanfactor errors that cause runway incursions, information that is urgently needed by the stakeholder
in the aviation industry to be able to reduce or avoid runway incursions.
RUNWAY INCURSION ERRORS
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The study adopted a qualitative paradigm in which qualitative methods were used to collect
and analyse information. Critical realism is the main epistemology of this inquiry, whereby reality
about the cause of communication errors and human factors causing runway incursions are
complex and layered. Data from the internet was obtained and analyzed through content analysis
to formulate another reality of functions of communication errors beyond the simple information
available. For example, incident reports from the airport and reports from the federal aviation
authority were used as secondary data. Reports from the control tower were also reviewed to
collect data about the causes of communication errors and human factor errors and how these
causes runway incursions. Information from the secondary sources has been checked for
correctness and then interpreted to arrive at the causes of runway incursions.
The scope of the study includes airports in the United States, both the controlled and the
uncontrolled ones. All runway incursions are covered in the study regardless of whether they led
to a collision or not and regardless of the level of severity. However, this study is limited to
incursion incidences that are erroneous and not risks of collision that occurred by human design.
Causes of Runway Incursions
The occurrence of runway incursions is not a recent phenomenon. According to Thomas
(2002), runway incursions have been occurring in different parts of the world for decades. Thomas
(2002) states that in the year 1977, for example, “two Boeing 747 aircrafts collided on a runway
at the Tenerife airport killing 582 people”. The runway was fog shrouded and this, coupled with
communication errors and human factors, resulted in the incursion. In 1984 a pilot of a business
jet had to make an early lift-off to avoid a collision with a DC-9 airline that was also using the
same runway as a business jet at the same time (Thomas, 2002). This is another historical profile
in which miscommunication causing a communication error or human factor error might have
RUNWAY INCURSION ERRORS
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occurred to influence the decision of clearing two aircraft to use the same runway.
The rate of runway incursions has risen to 70% due to an increase in air traffic (Torres,
Metscher & Smith, 2011). The increase in air traffic implies that at any given time, there is a
possibility of multiple landings and take-offs occurring simultaneously. Without caution by pilots
and the control tower, this situation often leads to communication errors and other human-factor
errors that lead to runway incursions.
A study by Torres, Metscher & Smith (2011) revealed that 41 percent of runway incursions
are caused by communication errors. It, therefore, follows that the majority of incidences of
runway incursions can be eradicated by simply mitigating the possibility of communication errors.
This then reinforced the need to carry out the present study, analyzed the function of
communication errors that cause runway incursions and how they can be mitigated.
The communication errors can occur between the pilot and the control tower (Cardosi &
Yost, 2001). For example, the pilots may misunderstand or misinterpret the information given to
them by the control tower. Therefore, they might end up using the runway for which they have not
been cleared to use, causing runway incursions and risk of collision. The question that bothers the
present study, in this case, relates to what might lead a pilot to misinterpret the clear information
given to him or her by the control tower.
The communication errors may also originate from the control tower itself. Torres,
Metscher & Smith (2011) observed that sometimes the control tower does not know the actual
location of all the aircraft and vehicles at the airport. In such an instance, the control tower might
clear an aircraft to use a runway that is blocked by a vehicle or another aircraft thus causing a risk
of collision (Cardosi & Yost, 2001; National Transport Safety Board, 2000).
RUNWAY INCURSION ERRORS
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But even then, there is a reason the control tower does not know the physical location of
every vehicle and craft in the airport. The question of why the control tower personnel may goahead to give misleading information when they do not know the location of all the vehicles stands
out.
Communication error is not the only factor causing runway incursions. According to
DiForce & Cardosi (2006), only two percent of the runway incursions occur in airports with control
towers. This then implies that about 98% of the runway incursions that take place in uncontrolled
airports occur either because of communication errors between pilots or due to other forms of
human factor errors.
According to the findings of Torres, Metscher & Smith (2011), runway incursions may
occur due to the failure of the pilot to communicate the proper location of his aircraft on the
Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) to other pilots who may also intend to use the same
runway.
In such a situation, a runway incursion is inevitable because other pilots may also decide
to use the same runway especially if the airport in question has very few runways available for
landing and take-off. This is a typical example of a runway incursion caused by a communication
error that does not emanate from a control tower. Runway incursions can also occur simply because
the pilots cannot locate where they are as they taxi on the runway. In such a situation, there must
be a function of the human factor such as inadequate training that must have caused a runway
incursion.
It is also worth mentioning at this point that pilots make more communication errors and
human factor errors compared to the control tower. DiForce & Cardosi (2006) state that “about
60% of the runway incursions are due to the communication errors, compared to the 30% of the
RUNWAY INCURSION ERRORS
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runway incursion incidences caused by communication errors and other human factors blamed on
the control towers in the United States year” (DiForce & Cardosi, 2006)
Therefore, a holistic and useful inquiry must focus on both the control tower and the pilots,
airports that are controlled and those that are not controlled. Such a study must also focus on both
the vehicle, aircraft, objects such as construction equipment and human beings as all this can cause
runway incursions and the consequent risk of accidents.
Efforts have been put by stakeholders before to mitigate the occurrence of runway
incursions. Such efforts have been characterized by innovations, technical interventions,
administrative interventions as well as research initiatives. One of the specific solutions to runway
incursions that have been proposed is the proper marking of the airport to guide pilots (DiForce &
Cardosi, 2006).
Other technological solutions include the Surface Movement Guidance and Control System
(SMGCS) that has been recommended by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(Young & Jones, 2000; Young & Jones, 2001). Another solution that has been attempted is the
proper lighting of the runway (DiForce & Cardosi, 2006). This has been proposed as a means of
guiding the pilots within the airport to avoid runway incursions.
Despite the present efforts discussed above, incidences of runway incursions resulting from
communication errors have persisted. Therefore, an understanding of the function of
communication and human errors needs to be established as a matter of urgency for an effective
solution for runway incursions to be found.
Past Research on Runway Incursion in the Context of This Study
Past research has attempted to answer the questions the present study seeks to put into
perspective. Central questions for the present study regard the possibility of reducing runway
RUNWAY INCURSION ERRORS
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incursions, understanding the functions of communication error and other human factors that cause
runway incursions and giving recommendations for reducing runway incursions, supposing it is
possible to do so. The gaps for the present study then identified.
Categories of Runway Incursions
The Federal Aviation Authority constitutes a competent team to categorise runway
incursions. The team carries out investigations pertaining to runway incidences as part of the
categorization process. Factors that are considered for the categorization include visibility, time
available for the pilot to react and the proximity of the airplane to the object (Cardosi, Hannon &
Sheridan, 2005). The FAA categorises runway incursions into four categories, from A to D, with
category A being more severe than category D.
Category A is more severe because it comprises an incursion incidence in which collusion
was avoided with a narrow margin (Cardosi & Sheridan, 2005). In Category B, the separating
distance decreases and there is a high likelihood of collusion. In category C, collision is possible
but there is sufficient time for the pilot to manoeuvre (Cardosi, Hannon & Sheridan, 2005).
Category D is less severe because there is no possibility for collision even though it qualifies to be
an incursion.
The study of incursions and their classification is important in coming up with regulations
that seek to prevent them and limit their occurrence. For example, The FAA has different
corrective actions for different types of runway incursions. Incursions that result in damage of
property are not treated in the same manner as those that pertain to loss of life. In addition,
incursions that happen while passengers are on board would be treated differently than those that
happen with no passenger on board. The difference is in terms of the requirements to report or not
and whether investigations would be called for or not. An incursion that results in minor damage
RUNWAY INCURSION ERRORS
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to the hull of the plane would not warranty a report to the FAA. However, one that casuses
significant damage to the hull and renders the plabne inoperable must be reported.
Hazard Identification and Management
According to Cokorilo (2013), hazards in the airport are identified through interview and
brainstorming sessions with airport workers and aviation experts. For example, a pilot may be
asked to narrate his experience during an incursion incidence. Reports from previous incursion
could also be reviewed to determine hazards and risks for incursions. The FAA appoints
multidisciplinary teams to manage risk in each and every airport (Cardosi, Hannon & Sheridan,
2005). The team may be comprised of the airport workers, pilots, members of the control tower
and aviation experts. The team is responsible for identification of hazards and formulation of
strategies for mitigating risks. The airport authorities them implement the strategies so as to
mitigate risks.
Can Runway Incursions be Reduced?
Various measures have been put to mitigate the occurrence of runway incursions. Despite
the past efforts, runway incursions have persisted to decades now. According to Thomas (2002),
past efforts have reduced the occurrence of runway incursions only to a negligible level. This
means that the past efforts have been ineffective in reducing, let alone eradicating, cases of runway
incursions.
Thomas (2002) remains pessimistic by stating the rate at which runway incursions happen
in the United States of America is disproportionate to the rate at which airport operations increase.
DeForce & Cardosi (2006) on the other hand hold a different opinion, by remaining optimistic that
it is possible to reduce the causes of runway incursions.
All that is needed is to understand the function of the communication errors and human
RUNWAY INCURSION ERRORS
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factors, for stakeholders to device strategies and implement measures for reducing runway
incursions. Proctor (2000), also suggests that runway incursions can be reduced by mentioning
route awareness, traffic position awareness and route deviation awareness as the areas that need to
address for a solution to be found.
Technology Is A Function of Communication Errors and Human Factors.
Technology is being used to mitigate runway incursion, but it can also serve as a function
of communication errors and human factors causing runway incursion. Knott, Gannon & Rench
(2000) established that even though technology has been employed as a mitigation strategy for
runway incursion, poor design of the human-machine interface is also to blame for the cases of
runway incursions.
Poor design of the human-machine interface makes it easier for pilots and crews to commit
human errors that put the airplane into the risk of collision with other objects. For instance, the
culture and language barrier that exists when an aircraft flies to a foreign country makes it difficult
for the crew to understand the information provided by the technological equipment in those
foreign airports thus leading to a runway incursion.
While poor technology could cause runway incursions, Knott, Gannon & Rench (2000)
failed to explain how technology leads to human error. Technology in itself is not a function of
communication error and the human factor. Technology can only provide an opportunity for pilots
and airport staff to commit a function of a communication error.
Negligence of the Pilot, Crew and Airport Management
Communication errors and human factors causing runway incursions may also occur due
to the negligence of the pilot. For example, it may happen that the pilot did not communicate the
proper position report of his or her aircraft on the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF)
RUNWAY INCURSION ERRORS
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for other pilots operating other airplanes in the same airport to recognize that his/her runway is
already being used (Torres, Metscher and Smith, 2011). Management may also serve the pilot with
a wrong airport diagram (Torres, Metscher and Smith, 2011). This view is consistent with that of
Thomas (2000) who also established that about 60% of runway incursions are due to pilot
deviations. However, the two scholars have failed to show what causes negligence or deviations
on the side of the pilot.
Ideas for Reducing Runway Incursions
The Federal Aviation Authority (2001) states that the ability to know the own-ship location
and location of other vehicles can help reduce the occurrence of runway incursions. This could
enable the staff at the control tower to know the runways that are busy at any given time, however,
it does not completely reduce runway incursions when there are varied functions of communication
errors.
The same view is held by DiForce & Cardosi (2006) and Young & Jones (2000) who call
for the establishment of a computer system that detects the locations of all aircraft and vehicles in
the airport and relays this information to the pilots and the control tower. This, however, can
address the communication errors that occur as a result of staff and pilots not knowing the location
of all vehicles in the airport and not those incursions occurring due to other functions of
communication errors and human factors. What needs to be known therefore is the framework that
can be used to develop one solution that addresses all possible functions of communication errors
and human factors.
RUNWAY INCURSION ERRORS
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Findings and Recommendations

Functions of Communication errors are common
The study has established that the type of communication errors and human factors causing
runway incursions are similar across many of cases investigated. The common type of
communication errors and human factors causing runway incursions established include;
1. An aircraft being cleared to use a runway while another craft is using it for landing
or take off at that same time,
2. A pilot deciding to enter a runway before they are cleared by the control tower to
do so,
3. The pilot giving wrong readback information but the control tower fails to
recognise the error,
4. No pilot readback information detected at the control tower and
5. The pilot failing to communicate the proper location of his aircraft among others.
In this study, these communication errors and human factors causing runway incursions are treated
as symptoms for other underlying functions. The functions of the communication errors and human
factors causing runway incursions (as discussed above) are detailed out in the paragraphs th …
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