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1.) THE ROLE OF PLAY IN EARLY CHILDHOODPlay has many physical, cognitive, social, and emotional developmental benefits for people of all ages, from infancy through late life. For this discussion, first watch the short video clips linked in the Resources. Use the “Stages and Types of Play” table, in Resources, to help you develop your post.Choose two of the video clips from the list and:Describe the stage and type of play demonstrated in the videos.Identify the cognitive development stage of the children in the videos.Describe the psychosocial development stage of the children in the videos.Respond to the following:How do theories (cognitive, psychosocial, ecological, or other) explain how the type of play demonstrated in the video clips promotes successful development in the stages you identified?RESOURCESDiscussion Participation Scoring Guide.Stages and Types of Play [PDF].Children at Play.APA Style and Format.2.) PARENTING STYLES AND CULTUREHow parents respond to, interact with, and discipline their children has a tremendous impact on their child’s cognitive and social development. Most information on parenting styles relies on research conducted by Diana Baumrind in the early 1960s. Later researchers (Chao, 1994; Darling & Steinberg, 1993) have argued that Baumrind’s research is based on Western, middle-class families of European descent and does not consider cultural differences when associating parenting style with child outcomes.Culture shapes values and beliefs. In turn, values and beliefs tend to shape parenting styles and how parents interact with their children. For example, collectivist cultures (individuals contribute to the well-being of the family and community) value behaviors such as helpfulness, conformity, and interdependence within the family structure (Darling & Steinberg, 1993).For this discussion:Locate at least one research article that deals with parenting styles of a culture different from your own.Provide a summary of the article.Describe the type of parenting common to that culture and explore how culture has shaped the parent-child relationship.ReferencesChao, R. (1994). Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: Understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Development, 65(4), 1111–1119.Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113(3), 487–496.

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